Publications

1988
Kramer, Martin. “La Mecque: la controverse du pèlerinage.” Maghreb-Machrek, no. 122 (1988): 38-52.Abstract
Juillet 1987: manifestation à la Mecque de pèlerins iraniens, reconstitution des faits à partir de versions contradictoires.
Kramer, Martin. “La morale du Hizbollah et sa logique.” Maghreb-Machrek, no. 119 (1988): 39-60.Abstract
Comment la vision présentée par le Hizbollah d'un nouveau Liban islamique s'articule-t-elle sur la justification des moyens d'action extraordinaires que ne peut être fondée sur la seule efficacité révolutionnaire, mais doit aussi être conforme aux qui ne principes musulmans universels? Après l'examen de la structure peut du « parti de Dieu » et la revue de ses principaux porte-parole, l'article analyse en détail les justifications présentées de deux grands types d'action : les opérations suicide, les prises d'otages et détournements d'avions. Pour l'instant, le premier débat est clos avec le développement d'actions militaires classiques, le second traduit une difficulté croissante à justifier toutes les la formes de prises d'otages, mais le succès de certaines opérations, et les divisions au sein de la coalition comme le silence des autorités religieuses iraniennes empêchent toute prise deposition définitive. Le Hizbollah demeurant convaincu que sa victoire finale résoudra la crise libanaise, et étant dans l'impossibilité d'y parvenir par des moyens conventionnels, le débat en son sein n'est pas prêt de prendre fin. La postface rappelle les grandes lignes de la rhétorique générale du cheikh Fadlallah et situe le débat moral dans la tension entre deux rationalités : stratégique et éthico-juridique, dont les rapports constituent un dilemme indépassable, sauf par la dénégation de son existence même.
La morale du Hizbollah et sa logique (pdf)
1987
Shi'ism, Resistance, and Revolution
Kramer, Martin. Shi'ism, Resistance, and Revolution. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1987.Abstract
Shi'i movements have developed highly original strategies of political action. These methods have had their greatest success in Iran but have inspired other Shi'is, in both the Arab world and South Asia. The aim of this book is twoford: to assess the present situation of mainstream (Twelver) Shi'ism in each part of this world and to measure the effect of Iran's Revolution throughout it. Proceedings of a conference held at Tel Aviv University in December 1984. 
Editor's introduction (pdf) مقدمه ویرایشگر (pdf)

The book appeared in an unauthorized Persian translation under the title تشیع، مقاومت و انقلاب in 1989-90. This is the source of the Persian translation of the editor's introduction.

Kramer, Martin. “Syria's Alawis and Shi'ism.” In Shi'ism, Resistance and Revolution, edited by Martin Kramer, 237-54. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1987.Abstract

An analysis of the effort by Syria's politically dominant Alawi minority to secure legitimation as Muslim, and the resistance to that effort by Syria's Sunni majority.

Syria's Alawis and Shi'ism (pdf) העלווים והאסלאם השיעי (pdf) علویان سوریه وتشیع (pdf)
The English pdf is the reprint from Kramer's collected volume Arab Awakening and Islamic Revival (1996). The Hebrew translation appeared in a collected volume published in 1991. The Persian translation appeared in a Persian translation of Shi'ism, Resistance, and Revolution, published in Tehran in 1989-90.
Kramer, Martin. “Review of William L. Cleveland, Islam Against the West: Shakib Arslan and the Campaign for Islamic Nationalism.” Middle Eastern Studies 23, no. 4 (1987): 529-533. JSTOR Review of Islam against the West (pdf)
1986
Kramer, Martin. “Muslim Statecraft and Subversion.” In Middle East Contemporary Survey 1983-84, edited by Haim Shaked and Daniel Dishon, 8:158-82. Tel Aviv: The Moshe Dayan Center, 1986. Google BooksAbstract
A survey of inter-Islamic affairs in 1983-84.
Muslim Statecraft and Subversion (pdf)
Islam Assembled: The Advent of the Muslim Congresses
Kramer, Martin. Islam Assembled: The Advent of the Muslim Congresses. New York: Columbia University Press, 1986. ACLS Humanities E-BookAbstract

Late in the 19th century, Muslims, separated by distance, language, and history, first thought to make their world whole by assembling in congress. "Islam Assembled" traces the roots of political activism in Islam as it took form in these gatherings. From the first fitful initiatives undertaken by a handful of Muslim cosmopolitans to the era when the West began to divest itself of its Muslim possessions and the need for the congresses diminished, "Islam Assembled" traces in detail this crucial but previously untold story.

Islam Assembled: The Advent of the Muslim Congresses (pdf)
1984
Kramer, Martin. “Review of Daniel Pipes, In the Path of God: Islam and Political Power.” The American Spectator, 1984, 38-40. Publisher's Version
Kramer, Martin, and Israel Stockman-Shomron. “Islam and Politics.” In Israel, the Middle East, and the Great Powers, 98-110. Jerusalem: Shikmona, 1984. Publisher's Version
1983
קרמר, מרטין. “הממסד הדתי המצרי במשבר.” משטר ואופוזיציה במצים. תל–אביב: הקיבוץ המאוחד, 1983.Abstract

על הממסד הדתי במצרים הוטל התפקיד של התמודדות בקיצוניות. הכשל בתיפקודו התגלה ברצח סאדאת ב–1981, אבל שורשיו היו ידועים עוד קודם.

הממסד הדתי המצרי במשבר (pdf)
1982
Kramer, Martin. “Arabs Against Themselves (book review).” Commentary 74, no. 1 (1982): 86-88.Abstract

Martin Kramer reviews Fouad Ajami's book The Arab Predicament. 

Arabs Against Themselves (pdf)
Kramer, Martin. “Shaykh Maraghi's Mission to the Hijaz, 1925.” Asian and African Studies 16, no. 1 (1982): 121-136. Web versionAbstract

An account of how Shaykh Mustafa al-Maraghi, acting at the impetus of the King of Egypt, sought to establish Egypt's hold over the Hijaz. Based on documents in Egyptian state archives.

Shaykh Maraghi's Mission to the Hijaz, 1925 (pdf)
1981
Kramer, Martin. “What Happened in Iran (book review).” Commentary 71, no. 1 (1981): 78-80.Abstract

A review of the last Shah of Iran's memoirs, Answer to History, and Barry Rubin's Paved with Good Intentions.

What Happened in Iran (pdf)
1980
Kramer, Martin. “Egypt's Royal Archives, 1922-1952.” American Research Center in Egypt Newsletter, no. 113 (1980): 19-21. Web version

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