The placental transfer of maternal IgG is critical for infant protection against infectious pathogens. However, factors that modulate the placental transfer of IgG remain largely undefined. HIV-infected women have impaired placental IgG transfer, presenting a unique ‘disruption model’ to define factors that modulate placental IgG transfer. We measured the placental transfer efficiency of maternal HIV and pathogen-specific IgG in U.S. (n=120) and Malawian (n=47) HIV-infected mothers and their HIV-exposed uninfected and infected infants. We examined the role of maternal HIV disease progression, infant factors, placental Fc receptor expression, IgG subclass, and glycan signatures and their association with placental IgG transfer efficiency. Maternal IgG characteristics, such as binding to placentally expressed Fc receptors FcgRIIa and FcgRIIIa, and Fc region glycan profiles were associated with placental IgG transfer efficiency. Our findings suggest that Fc region characteristics modulate the selective placental transfer of IgG, with implications for maternal vaccine design and infant health.