Pallares-Barbera, M. & Sánchez-Hernández, J.L., 2022. Nuevas fronteras en el espacio económico. Economía social y economías alternativas. New frontiers in economic space. Social economy and alternative economies. Documents d’Anàlisi Geogràfica , 68 (3) , pp. 505-518. Publisher's VersionAbstract


Basado en el formato del trabajo de Andrew Barry y Mark Maslin, este artículo tiene como objetivo reflejar las discusiones sobre la capacidad de la economía social y las economías alternativas para generar impactos colectivos sobre el territorio en la segunda década del siglo xxi. La reflexión analítica se apoya en varias teorías sobre la aparición de nuevas formas de actividad económica y su relación con el territorio, y asume que las condiciones territoriales son siempre desiguales, como ha constatado la geografía económica. Por tanto, a partir de la path dependence o dependencia de la trayectoria y de la teoría de la transición sociotécnica, principalmente, se discuten y se formulan nuevas preguntas, que en este artículo se dejan abiertas, sobre los fuertes componentes sociales y territoriales de ambos conceptos. La idea de que las decisiones pasadas condicionan las decisiones que podemos adoptar en la actualidad y de que los estados, acciones o decisiones actuales o futuros dependen de la ruta que hayan tomado eventos previos se postula como una explicación crítica de la formación de distintas soluciones y espacios económicos. La transición sociotécnica como herramienta conceptual se propone para la comprensión del proceso de transición (ecológica, energética, alimentaria, entre otras) hacia un modelo económico y social sostenible.

Palabras clave: economía social; economías alternativas; dependencia de la trayectoria; transición sociotécnica; geografía económica



New frontiers in economic space. Social economy and alternative economies

Based on the format of the work of Andrew Barry and Mark Maslin, this article aims to reflect on the capacity of the social economy and alternative economies to generate collective impacts on the territory in the second decade of the twenty-first century. Analytical reflection is based on various theories of the emergence of new forms of economic activity and their relationship with the territory, and assumes that territorial conditions are always unequal, as has been documented in economic geography. Therefore, from path dependence and the theory of the sociotechnical transition new questions are discussed and formulated on the strong links of the social and territorial components of both concepts. The idea that past decisions condition the decisions we can make today and that current or future states, actions, or decisions depend on the path that previous events have taken is postulated as a critical explanation of the formation of different solutions and economic spaces. Socio-technical transition as a conceptual tool is proposed for understanding the process of transition (ecological, energy, food, among others) to a sustainable economic and social model. Keywords: social economy; alternative economies; path dependence; sociotechnical transition; economic geography


Pallares-Barbera, M., et al., 2022. Health Geography of COVID-19: An Exploratory Analysis of the Pandemic during its First Phase in the Compact Cities of Barcelona and Madrid, Spain. . In COVID-19 and a World of Ad Hoc Geographies. Cham. Cham: Springer.Abstract

COVID-19 has affected every aspect of life around the globe. To understand the spread of disease it is essential to record location and place, space and population. This chapter is based in history and the epidemiologist literature reporting the relevant variables. The objective is to determine which variable affects contagion in compact cities such as Barcelona and Madrid. Are both cities affected by the same variables? Are there differences between the cities? Why? The set of variables involves the socioeconomic conditions of the population, aging populations and neighborhood conditions. The Global and Local Moran’s I tools for spatial autocorrelation are used as well as spatial autoregressive models (SAR). Population movements within compact territories might produce a distortion in research results if not accounted for. In the planning strategy, inequalities, society and health treated as a system might improve the foundations for living conditions and health.

Serra, P., Pallares-Barbera, M. & Salvati, L., 2022. Can a long-term economic subsidy counteract rural depopulation? An empirical analysis from two Spanish regions. Quality & Quantity , On-line.Abstract
Rural depopulation in advanced economies has negative economic consequences for local communities and requires effective policies at different spatio-temporal and governance scales. Since the 1980s, an economic subsidy (Rural Employment Plan, PER-PFEA) was implemented at municipality scale in two autonomous communities of Spain (Andalusia and Extremadura) with the aim at improving the economic performances and counteracting depopulation. Within this national plan, each municipality requests and receives funds for improving the labour conditions of temporary agricultural workers. Long-term implementation of the PER-PFEA programme allows assessment of the effectiveness of this subsidy scheme in containing depopulation. The present study classifies municipalities in the two Spanish regions according to their demographic dynamics over a decade (2002 − 2012) and their capacity to attract public funds from the plan. A threshold value based on logistic probabilities was estimated to assess its success in counteracting depopulation. Results identified four municipal profiles. On the one hand, subsidy application reduced depopulation probability in 23.3% and 8.4% of Andalusia and Extremadura municipalities, respectively. On the other hand, given the low level of requested funds, the programme did not reduce depopulation in 26.3% and 61.8% of Andalusia and Extremadura municipalities with a stagnant economy based on silviculture and livestock. While requesting few funds, 36.9% and 16.7% of municipalities exhibited population growth and a dynamic economic base. Finally, despite a large provision of funds, the subsidy seemed to have not reduced depopulation probability in 13.5% and 13.1% of municipalities, representing the most problematic contexts because of population shrinkage and economic backwardness. The study finally discusses some proposals for future improvements of the subsidy provision system.
Keywords Population shrinkage · Rural spanish regions · Temporary job · Economic subsidy · Disadvantaged municipalities
Dynamics and knowledge flows in coworkings. Micro-spaces of innovation in the Trafalgar Textile District in Barcelona (In Spanish)
VICENTE-SALAR, R., Pallares-Barbera, M. & Vera, A., 2021. Dynamics and knowledge flows in coworkings. Micro-spaces of innovation in the Trafalgar Textile District in Barcelona (In Spanish). In Estrategias, espacios y redes para la innovación urbana. Madrid. Madrid: Catarata, pp. 128.Abstract



Since Brad Neuberg founded the first coworking (CW) in San Francisco in 2005, the rise of these spaces has experienced a significant increase on an international scale, growing to 26,300 (Statista, 2021). The appearance of CWs is explained by a series of factors such as the reconfiguration of the labor market, the increasing use of ICTs and the increase in global economic flows. These facts have caused a progressive fragmentation of the value-added chain, increasing the number of sole proprietorships (freelancers) based on knowledge and creativity and taking CWs as work spaces (Capdevila, 2013; Gerdenitsch, et al, 2016; Mariotti, et al, 2017; Merkel, 2015; Parrino, 2015). A CW is defined as a space shared by different professionals dedicated to various fields within the knowledge and creativity industry who rent facilities such as a table or a Wi-Fi connection (Gandini, 2015). Some authors have pointed out that CWs are classified as third spaces or third places.

A total of 196 CWs are located in Barcelona, ​​making it the twelfth European city with the most spaces of this type (Institut Cerdà, 2019). Focusing on an intra-urban scale, the Ensanche district (Eixample in Catalan) concentrates 30.61% of the CWs (Institut Cerdà, 2019), being the Trafalgar Textile District one of the urban spaces where its appearance has been most noticeable. The Trafalgar Textile District is a central urban space that is located in the vicinity of Plaza Catalunya and Paseo de Gracia, two of the most important urban commercial and business centers in the city, and adjacent to the Sant Pere neighborhood, one of the three that make up the historic center of Barcelona. The objective of the study is to analyze, first, the competitive advantages that DTT offers in the configuration of knowledge networks within the CWs and, second, how these develop and evolve within the same spaces.




Desde que en 2005 Brad Neuberg fundó en San Francisco el primer coworking (CW), el auge de estos espacios ha experimentado un aumento importante a escala internacional creciendo hasta los 26300 (Statista, 2021). La aparición de los CWs se explica por una serie de factores tales como la reconfiguración del mercado de trabajo, el creciente uso de las TICs y el aumento de los flujos económicos globales. Estos hechos han provocado una progresiva fragmentación de la cadena de valor añadido aumentando el número de empresas unipersonales (freelances) basadas en el conocimiento y la creatividad y tomando a los CWs como espacios de trabajo (Capdevila, 2013; Gerdenitsch, et al, 2016; Mariotti, et al, 2017; Merkel, 2015; Parrino, 2015). Un CW se define como un espacio compartido por diferentes profesionales dedicados a diversos campos dentro de la industria del conocimiento y la creatividad que alquilan instalaciones tales como una mesa o una conexión wifi (Gandini, 2015). Algunos autores han señalado que los CWs se clasifican como terceros espacios o third places.

En Barcelona se localizan un total de 196 CWs, siendo la decimosegunda ciudad europea con más espacios de este tipo (Institut Cerdà, 2019). Enfocándonos a una escala intraurbana, el distrito del Ensanche (Eixample en catalán) concentra el 30,61% de los CWs (Institut Cerdà, 2019), siendo el Distrito Textil de Trafalgar uno de los espacios urbanos donde su aparición ha sido más notoria. El Distrito Textil de Trafalgar es un espacio urbano central que se localiza en las proximidades de Plaza Catalunya y Paseo de Gracia, dos de los centros comerciales urbanos y empresariales más importantes de la ciudad, y adyacente al barrio de Sant Pere, uno de los tres que conforman el centro histórico de Barcelona. El objetivo de estudio es analizar, primero, las ventajas competitivas que ofrece el DTT en la configuración de redes de conocimiento dentro de los CWs y, segundo, cómo estas se desarrollan y evolucionan dentro de los mismos espacios.


Pallares-Barbera, M. & Vera, A., 2021. Així és com la COVID-19 ha afectat el comerç exterior. This is how COVID-19 has affected foreign trade in Catalonia. In La nova geografía de la Catalunya postcovid. The new geography of post-COVID in Catalonia. Barcelona. Barcelona: Societat Catalana de Geografia. Geographical Catalan Society, pp. 205-220.
Van Der Borght, R. & Pallares-Barbera, M., 2021. Are compact cities more carbon efficient? An integrated analysis of sustainability and Economic Geography based on Latin American urban settings. IX Jornadas de Geografía Económica. Asociación Española de Geografía (AGE).Abstract

Cities are of central importance for both economic growth and sustainable development. While urbanization has enhanced agglomeration economies, urban sprawling has simultaneously increased land-use and energy consumption, making the transition to a low-carbon development pathway particularly complicated. In this context, compact cities (i.e. densely populated) have been increasingly mentioned as a key option to limit the global increase in temperature. However, in urban settings of Latin America, higher density might exacerbate negative congestion effects already affecting urban areas and produce uncertain impacts on CO2 emissions. To better understand the CO2 emissions impact of higher density in Latin-American cities, a new methodological approach is developed to systematically assess city-level CO2 emissions for a set of 570 cities distributed across 7 countries. Based on this new dataset, a spatial panel model is built with the purpose to find robust evidence that higher density reduces CO2 emissions at the city-level. Results also shed lights on the crucial role that spatial planning can play to help curbing CO2 emissions in Latin-American.


Keywords: urban emissions; low-carbon cities; population-based clusters; economic geography; spatial patterns.

Estructuras espaciales urbanas y emisiones de CO2 un análisis empírico en las ciudades de 7 países Latinoamericanos. Urban spatial patterns and CO2 emissions an empirical analysis of 7 Latin American countries.
Van Der Borght, R. & Pallares-Barbera, M., 2021. Estructuras espaciales urbanas y emisiones de CO2 un análisis empírico en las ciudades de 7 países Latinoamericanos. Urban spatial patterns and CO2 emissions an empirical analysis of 7 Latin American countries. . XXVII Congreso de la Asociación Española de Geografía , 1 (1) , pp. 431-443. Abstract Proceedings
Maksymiuk, G., et al., 2021. Thinking Deep. Acting on Top. Underground Built Heritage and Its Fringe as a Community Catalyst for Local Sustainable Development: Exploratory Cases from Poland and Greece. Sustainability , 13 (24) , pp. 14031. Publisher's VersionAbstract


Underground Built Heritage (UBH) is a distinct class of cultural heritage providing a focal point for community pride and engagement to become a springboard for local sustainable development (LSD). This research aims to articulate how local UBH and its fringe serve as a facilitator of communal identity to mobilize community care towards social and economic development with less involvement from the state and the market actors. For this purpose, local (and less-conspicuous) cases of UBH are employed in Warsaw, Poland, and Volos, Greece, indicating the power of UBH to connect and engage local communities with places, triggering a momentum for a truly bottom-up action that pays less attention to market considerations and state support. The studied UBH sites have been discussed according to an established common framework, dealing with five main issues: (a) general context and status, (b) history, (c) users and management, (d) ecosystem services, and (e) introduction of the paradigm of living labs. The analysis was based on a thorough literature review and complemented by field observations and interviews. The results provide evidence for UBH as a potential facilitator of social and economic development. The case studies in Poland and Greece showed that local actors were involved in activities and social networks of tacit knowledge, generating community building to reinforce bottom-up activities in contact with UBH.

Keywords: cultural heritagecase study methodliving labsbottom-up processesplace and community based approaches

Presentación. Reposicionamiento y reconfiguración de las actividades económicas en las ciudades españolas tras la recesión (2010-2020)
Alonso Logroño, P., Pallares-Barbera, M. & Vera, A., 2021. Presentación. Reposicionamiento y reconfiguración de las actividades económicas en las ciudades españolas tras la recesión (2010-2020). Documents d'Anàlisi Geogràfica , 67 (3) , pp. 355-361.Abstract
El Grupo de Geografía Económica de la Asociación Española de Geografía,
en su interés por avanzar en el estudio de las teorías donde se enmarcan sus
trabajos de investigación y las metodologías que utilizan, decidió organizar una
publicación especial para evidenciar las preguntas que se hacían los geógrafos
económicos en España y obtener unos resultados rigurosos en pleno siglo xxi.
Este número especial de Documents d’Anàlisi Geogràfica es el resultado de esta
labor. El objetivo se concreta en mostrar la riqueza y la variedad de temáticas
en las que la geografía económica española está centrando algunas de
sus investigaciones. Cabe decir que la geografía económica en España puede
considerarse mucho más amplia que los enfoques ofrecidos en este especial, en
sus objetivos, teorías, métodos y tareas. De hecho, para darle una coherencia,
se tuvieron que restringir los artículos publicados y centrarse en el estudio de
los problemas económicos en la escala urbana. Aun así, y con esta limitación,
se puede observar que la geografía económica es una disciplina muy viva, ubicua,
comprometida social y políticamente, por tanto, los resultados son muy
amplios. Este número ofrece una pequeña muestra de lo que, por otra parte,
se puede encontrar en revistas prestigiosas de geografía, tanto en el ámbito
nacional como en el internacional, sobre las investigaciones que llevan a cabo
los geógrafos económicos en España. Por tanto, el contenido de este ejemplar es
en sí ambicioso y riguroso, aunque somos conscientes de que no es exhaustivo.
Grid orientation and natural ventilation in Cerdà’s 1860 urban plan for Barcelona. Eprint:
Pallares-Barbera, M., Gisbert, M. & Badia, A., 2020. Grid orientation and natural ventilation in Cerdà’s 1860 urban plan for Barcelona. Eprint: . Planning Perspectives , 36 (4) , pp. 719-739. Publisher's VersionAbstract

The increasing concern about climate change has produced growing interest in
natural ventilation and urban planning. There seems to be a gap in the study of
introducing urban climate into urban planning, even though doing so would
increase population comfort and decrease energy spending. Natural ventilation
provided by wind flowing through the streets of a city might be considered as
a first priority for passive cooling. It is intuitive that if the street grid coincides
with wind flow direction, a city will get more wind in the street. Otherwise,
building walls will stop the wind. This study addresses this important topic,
grounded on the urbanization of Ildefons Cerdà with regard to Barcelona. In
this research, a consistency analysis of the grid orientation and wind flow
direction is done for Barcelona. The objective is to demonstrate using current
technology that Cerdà’s grid orientation, which strove to capture fresh winds
in summer and avoid cold winds in winter, really works. Methodologically, we
discuss the reasons, found in the vast work of the Cerdà urban plan, for
capturing winds; and we demonstrate the goodness of fit of street grid
orientation for capturing winds using spatial analysis in GIS.



Winds; natural ventilation; urban planning; Cerdà; grid orientation; spatial analysis.


Spatial Inequality in Ecuador: A Structural Gap Approach
Canelos-Salazar, R., Pallares-Barbera, M. & Vera, A., 2020. Spatial Inequality in Ecuador: A Structural Gap Approach. In Urban and Regional Planning and Development: 20th Century Forms and 21st Century Transformation. Cham, Switzerland. Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing, pp. 139-155.Abstract

Classical analyses of constraints and challenges associated with development in middle-income Latin American countries have been performed based on per capita income levels. Since the first decade of the twenty-first century, the structural gap approach has been an alternative criterion to that of per capita income. It identifies areas where there are gaps, such as poverty, inequality and social inclusion, which hinder social and economic development. In the present study, we used hierarchical cluster analysis to assess the socioeconomic development of cities in Ecuador. The goal was to add depth and flexibility to the study in order to assess a more complex reality regarding the development level of the country. This way, the resulting taxonomies of cities could be used to address specific policies to improve quality of life and sustainability of the population.


Keywords: Hierarchical cluster analysis, Latino America, Structural gap theory, Socioeconomic development. 

DOI 10.1007/978-3-030-31776-8.
VICENTE-SALAR, R. & Pallares-Barbera, M., 2020. Chinese investment in mature economic spaces. The textile district of Trafalgar in Barcelona. In The Spanish metropolitan areas between competitiveness and sustainability. New tools for an urban policy in the global context. Valencia. Valencia: Tirant Lo Blanch, pp. 307-320.Abstract


Since the last decades, China has become one of the most important countries in the world economy. The country's entry into the World Trade Organization (WTO) (2001) and the Beijing Consensus (2004), among other factors, have outlined its economic strategy in aspects such as international trade. Through massive investment in developing countries through win-win cooperation (Alves, 2013) and taking soft power as its main strategy (Wang, 2008), China is becoming one of the main economic powers in the world. This new world scenario is reflected in cities. Million-dollar investments by Chinese companies are having an increasing presence in the economic development of European cities (Casaburi and Blanco, 2013). An example of this is the Hong Kong Company Hutchinson Port Holdings in Barcelona (Frago, 2015). Its investment in the creation of the Barcelona Europe South Terminal (BEST) port center, in 2012, has led to positioning the city as one of the most important logistics hubs in the Mediterranean area. On the other hand, the policy of opening up the Chinese population to emigration (Song and Liang, 2019) has implied their entry into American and European cities, sometimes leading to the opening of small and medium-sized companies in different sectors (Chaudhry and Crick, 2004; Fong et al., 2012; Guerassimoff, 2003; Katila and Wahlbeck, 2012).



Desde las últimas décadas, China se ha convertido en uno de los países más importantes en la economía mundial. La entrada del país en la Organización Mundial del Comercio (OMC) (2001) y el Consenso de Beijing (2004), entre otros factores, han trazado su estrategia económica en aspectos como el comercio internacional. A través de la inversión masiva en países en desarrollo a través de una cooperación win-win (Alves, 2013) y tomando como estrategia principal el soft power (Wang, 2008), China se está convirtiendo en una de las principales potencias económicas del mundo. Este nuevo escenario mundial tiene su reflejo en las ciudades. Inversiones millonarias de empresas chinas están teniendo cada vez más presencia en el desarrollo económico de las ciudades europeas (Casaburi y Blanco, 2013). Un ejemplo de ello es la empresa de Hong Kong Hutchinson Port Holdings en Barcelona (Frago, 2015). Su inversión en la creación del centro portuario Barcelona Europe South Terminal (BEST), en el 2012, ha supuesto colocar a la ciudad como uno de los hubs logísticos más importantes en la zona del Mediterráneo. Por otra parte, la política de apertura a la emigración de la población china (Song y Liang, 2019) ha implicado su entrada en ciudades americanas y europeas conllevando, en algunas ocasiones, la apertura de pequeñas y medianas empresas en diferentes sectores (Chaudhry y Crick, 2004; Fong et al., 2012; Guerassimoff, 2003; Katila y Wahlbeck, 2012).

Pujantell Albós, J.A., et al., 2020. Metropolitan protected natural spaces as sentinel landscapes of global change. The Montseny Natural Park and reserve of the biosphere in the metropolitan region of Barcelona. In The Spanish metropolitan areas between competitiveness and sustainability. New tools for an urban policy in the global context. Valencia. Valencia: Tirant Lo Blanch, pp. 227-248.Abstract


Protected natural spaces (ENP) located in metropolitan areas are increasingly integrated into the socio-economic dynamics of these territories. The presence of these spaces near large urban areas plays a very important role both for their environmental sustainability and for the quality of life of their inhabitants, through the provision of recreational, cultural, productive environmental services and the regulation of different processes. Currently, in a context of environmental crisis on a planetary scale, global change manifests a threat to the provision of environmental services. For this reason, it is of great importance to study the manifestations of this global change process, through the so-called sentinel landscapes, which are defined as those with a high sensitivity and indicator capacity to global change, as presented in the next section. The second part of this chapter presents the case study of the protected natural spaces of the Metropolitan Region of Barcelona, ​​with the Montseny Natural Park and Biosphere Reserve as a paradigmatic example of a sentinel landscape of global change in a metropolitan context.


Los espacios naturales protegidos (ENP) localizados en áreas metropolitanas están cada vez más integrados en las dinámicas socioeconómicas de estos territorios. La presencia de estos espacios cerca de las grandes zonas urbanas tiene un papel muy importante tanto para su sostenibilidad ambiental como para la calidad de vida de sus habitantes, a través de la provisión de servicios ambientales recreativos, culturales, productivos y de regulación de distintos procesos naturales. Actualmente, en un contexto de crisis ambiental a escala planetaria, el cambio global manifiesta una amenaza para la provisión de servicios ambientales. Por este motivo, tiene una gran importancia el estudio de las manifestaciones de este proceso de cambio global, a través de los denominados paisajes centinela, que se definen como aquellos con una alta sensibilidad y capacidad indicadora al cambio global, tal y como se presenta en el siguiente apartado. En la segunda parte de este capítulo se presenta el caso de estudio de los espacios naturales protegidos de la Región Metropolitana de Barcelona, con el Parque Natural y Reserva de la Biosfera del Montseny como ejemplo paradigmático de paisaje centinela del cambio global en un contexto metropolitano.
Urban biodiversity, welfare and urban planning: the city of Barcelona as an ecosystem
Marlès Magre, J., et al., 2020. Urban biodiversity, welfare and urban planning: the city of Barcelona as an ecosystem. In The Spanish metropolitan areas between competitiveness and sustainability. New tools for an urban policy in the global context. Valencia. Valencia: Tirant Lo Blanch, pp. 207-226.Abstract

In the second decade of the twenty-first century, urban space finds itself at a key juncture in history where biodiversity, population growth, and climate change are highly relevant elements in the context of global change. A more holistic perception of urban analysis has highlighted the significance of the benefits for human health that derive from experiences with nature and associated biodiversity. Urban ecosystems contain a varied and little known biodiversity, which can be a key element in the culture of sustainability. Additionally, the level of proximity of the population to urban services, such as health, education, or parks, increases the degree of satisfaction, quality of life and well-being of the population (Pallares-Barbera et al., 2011; 2005; 1986). New studies reveal the relationship between more holistic urban planning that includes elements of climate and nature and that can offer a range of important benefits in terms of health, well-being and adaptation and mitigation to climate change. On the contrary, the reduction of biodiversity or the scarcity of services can generate spaces of well-being void and an increase in social conflict. The innovation in this chapter focuses on two fundamental axes: urban biodiversity and planning as inseparable elements to achieve sustainability, the case study being the city of Barcelona.




En la segunda década del siglo veintiuno, el espacio urbano se encuentra en una coyuntura clave en la historia donde la biodiversidad, el crecimiento de la población, y el cambio climático constituyen elementos muy relevantes en el contexto del cambio global. Una percepción más holística del análisis urbano ha puesto en valor la significancia de los beneficios para la salud humana que se derivan de las experiencias con la naturaleza y la biodiversidad asociada. Los ecosistemas urbanos contienen una variada y poco conocida biodiversidad, que puede constituir un elemento clave en la cultura de la sostenibilidad. Complementariamente, el nivel de proximidad de la población a los servicios urbanos, como la sanidad, la educación, o los parques, incrementa el grado de satisfacción, calidad de vida y bienestar de la población (Pallares-Barbera et al., 2011; 2005; 1986). Nuevos estudios revelan la relación entre una planificación urbana más holística que incluya elementos del clima y de la naturaleza y que puede ofrecer una gama de beneficios importantes en temas de salud, bienestar y adaptación y mitigación al cambio climático. Por el contrario, la reducción de la biodiversidad o la escasez de servicios puede generar espacios de vacío de bienestar y de aumento de conflicto social. La innovación de este capítulo se centra en dos ejes fundamentales: la biodiversidad urbana y la planificación como elementos indisolubles para conseguir la sostenibilidad, siendo el caso de estudio la ciudad de Barcelona.

Pallares-Barbera, M. & Masala, E., 2020. Capturing demand movements and patterns using big data in Barcelona. An inferential analysis in the geography of behavior. In The Spanish metropolitan areas between competitiveness and sustainability. New tools for an urban policy in the global context. Valencia. Valencia: Tirant Lo Blanch, pp. 85-104.Abstract


Individuals can move through space, but since not all space is the same, they will be attracted to certain preferential locations. There is an uneven distribution of economic activity in space, and it will attract consumers based on the constraints of demand preferences, increased returns to scale, and transportation costs (Hamilton and Linge, 1979). Spatial variations in demand depend on consumer preferences, among other characteristics, according to the type of goods offered by the different areas of the city, the cultural origin of individuals in the city, the time of day and the day of week. Therefore, the decisions that individuals make to use the space are limited by what the market offers in this space. The relationship between demand and supply will cause spaces where productivity will be higher, such as cities and others where there will be no productivity, such as deserts. The reason these differences exist is due to agglomerations of activities that attract consumers and these are concentrated in cities.




Los individuos pueden moverse a través del espacio, pero dado que no todo el espacio es igual se verán atraídos por determinadas localizaciones preferenciales. Existe una distribución desigual de la actividad económica en el espacio, y ésta atraerá a consumidores en función de las limitaciones de preferencias de demanda, del aumento de los rendimientos a escala y de los costos de transporte (Hamilton y Linge, 1979). Las variaciones espaciales en la demanda dependen de las preferencias de los consumidores, entre otras características, según el tipo de bienes ofrecidos por las diferentes áreas de la ciudad, el origen cultural de los individuos en la ciudad, la hora del día y el día de la semana. Por tanto, las decisiones que toman los individuos para usar el espacio están limitadas por lo que ofrece el mercado en este espacio. La relación entre demanda y oferta causará espacios donde la productividad será mayor, como las ciudades y otras donde no habrá productividad, como los desiertos. El por qué existen estas diferencias es debido a aglomeraciones de actividades que atraen a consumidores y éstas están concentradas en las ciudades.

En este capítulo se sugieren nuevas discusiones dentro de la “geografía del comportamiento” (Pred, 1967) sobre la demanda, de nuevas metodologías de análisis de Big Data y de posibles usos de los resultados para políticas de mejora de un urbanismo más sostenible.
De clústeres a microclústeres: coworkings como nuevos espacios económicos en el Distrito Textil de Trafalgar en Barcelona. DOI:
VICENTE-SALAR, R., Pallares-Barbera, M. & Vera, A., 2020. De clústeres a microclústeres: coworkings como nuevos espacios económicos en el Distrito Textil de Trafalgar en Barcelona. DOI: In La Geografía de las Redes Económicas Y la Geografía Económica en Red. Porto. Porto: Faculdade de Letras da Universidade do Porto, Asociación de Geógrafos Españoles, pp. 119-128.Abstract
El objetivo de la comunicación es analizar el papel de las economías externas en la evolución productiva del Distrito Textil de Trafalgar (DTT). A lo largo del siglo XX, el DTT albergaba empresas relacionadas con el textil configurándose un clúster. Actual-mente, el clúster textil prácticamente ha desaparecido dando lugar a microclústeres creativos y del conocimiento a través de la aparición de los coworkings (CWs). La metodología se enmarca dentro del análisis estadístico espacial y de entrevistas en pro-fundidad. Los resultados muestran que, desde el siglo XX hasta la actualidad, la evolución en la naturaleza de las economías externas que ofrece Barcelona y, particularmente, el DTT está fomentando la evolución productiva del distrito. Consecuente-mente, el DTT se considera, actualmente, un espacio económico en transición donde reminiscencias del clúster textil y un nú-mero creciente de CWs cohabitan en un mismo espacio urbano.
Palabras claves: economías externas, coworkings, microclústeres, estadística espacial, Distrito Textil de Trafalgar, Barcelona.
How urban green management is influencing passerine birds’ nesting in the Mediterranean: A case study in a Catalan city
MARLÈS MAGRE, J., et al., 2019. How urban green management is influencing passerine birds’ nesting in the Mediterranean: A case study in a Catalan city Urban Forestry & Urban Greening , 41 (May) , pp. 221-229.Abstract


The vegetation within the urban system provides sheltering and food provisions to birds, influencing their nesting options. This study analyses for the first time in the Mediterranean area how different socio-ecological factors related with public urban green management can influence the nesting of the passerine bird order. It uses a case study in the city of Valls (Catalonia, Spain). First, the public urban green was quantitatively and qualitatively characterised; then the nests from the passerine birds were collected and identified, and finally, potential associations between nests and urban green-related socio-ecological factors such as vegetation type (tree, shrub, herb, liana), plant species, neighbourhood type, pruning type, fruit and seed production, and presence of insect plague were analysed. A total of 300 nests were identified and belonged, mostly, to the family of Fringillidae and Sylviidae, all from Mediterranean agroforestry areas. Passerine birds show preference for the historic centre, being this area the one with highest biodiversity of vegetation in the city, in detriment of surrounding neighbourhoods, which in turn are less biodiverse. Passerine birds do not consider four tree species (Celtis australis, Laurus nobilis, Robinia pseudoacacia and Pinus pinea) suitable for nesting whereas showing preference for two tree species of medium height and size (Hibiscus syriacus and Melia azederach). Also, passerine birds seem to preferably nest in trees that have been pruned intensively. These results suggest that, to strengthen the passerine bird diversity in cities, urban green management should promote certain species of trees of medium size and intensive pruning while supporting the overall biodiversity of the urban green. All these results contribute to inform effective urban planning and management strategies for passerine birds conservation that aim to reconcile urban development and urban biodiversity protection.


Keywords: Ornithofauna, Urban Biodiversity.

Wildfires in the wildland-urban interface in Catalonia: Vulnerability analysis based on land use and land cover change.
Badia, A., et al., 2019. Wildfires in the wildland-urban interface in Catalonia: Vulnerability analysis based on land use and land cover change. Science of the Total Environment , 673 , pp. 184-196.Abstract

The crisis in traditional forest and farming activities that began in the second half of the 20th century has given way to a new territorial structure, characterised by greater forest density and an acceleration of urban sprawl, which has affected the impact of fires on the territory and especially on the inhabitants. The increased vulnerability of homes located at the wildland-urban interface (WUI) and the differences in the intensity of fire impact makes it necessary to identify different typologies of WUI zones. Characterization of WUI typologies was based on four forest fires with distinct characteristics, selected from fires that occurred in Catalonia in 2003 and 2012. Based on the different landscape units that have been studied and the dynamics of the changes that have occurred in the study area over the past 15 years, together with the occurrence of fires during this period, identified three major WUI zone typologies: a) metropolitan, b) agroforest and c) mountain agrosilvopastoral. The results, based on Kappa index and Rate of Change, show significant changes in Land Use and Land Cover between 2003 and 2009 in each study area, but the economic and social context in each region generated different territorial dynamics for each typology. This diagnosis contributes to knowledge that expands the available planning and management tools to mitigate the effects of wildfires.

Keywords: Landscape, Kappa index, Rate of change, Wildfire prevention.

Exploring the Concept of Cyberpark: What the Experts Think
Arvanitidis, P., et al., 2019. Exploring the Concept of Cyberpark: What the Experts Think. In CyberParks - The Interface Between People, Places and Technology - New Approaches and Perspectives. Cham, Switzerland. Cham, Switzerland: Springer, pp. 50–66. Publisher's VersionAbstract

Abstract. The chapter aims to provide a contextualisation of the cyberpark concept as this is perceived by a wide range of experts in public space and information technologies. To do so it makes use of a questionnaire survey conducted with the participants of the CyberParks COST Action, which collected their views on a number of aspects concerning both the mediated and the not mediated public open spaces, such as: their elements and qualities, the facilities they should offer, the activities they should facilitate, the type of space and location that are most suitable to accommodate them, their appropriate size and manner for their development, their target user group and other aspects of their configuration. The analysis brings out the commonalities and differences in experts’ views regarding the mediated and the not mediated public open spaces, and, as such, it contributes to specify further the cyberpark concept, mapping out its characteristics and dimensions. This should enrich the ongoing dialogue within the literature and facilitate interactions between relevant, yet fragmented, scientific disciplines in the area to inform the production and appropriation of both mediated and the not mediated public open spaces.


Keywords: experts, views, diversity, survey.

Challenging Methods and Results Obtained from User-Generated Content in Barcelona’s Public Open Spaces
Pallares-Barbera, M., et al., 2019. Challenging Methods and Results Obtained from User-Generated Content in Barcelona’s Public Open Spaces In CyberParks - The Interface Between People, Places and Technology - New Approaches and Perspectives. Cham, Switzerland. Cham, Switzerland: Springer, pp. 120–136.Abstract

Abstract. User-generated content (UGC) provides useful resources for academics, technicians and policymakers to obtain and analyse results in order to improve lives of individuals in urban settings. User-generated content comes from people who voluntarily contribute data, information, or media that then appears in a way which can be viewed by others; usually on the Web. However, to date little is known about how complex methodologies for getting results are subject to methodology-formation errors, personal data protection, and reliability of outcomes. Different researches have been approaching to inquire big data methods for a better understanding of social groups for planners and economic needs. In this chapter, through UGC from Tweets of users located in Barcelona, we present different research experiments. Data collection is based on the use of REST API; while analysis and representation of UGC follow different ways of processing and providing a plurality of information. The first objective is to study the results at a different geographical scale, Barcelona’s Metropolitan Area and at two Public Open Spaces (POS) in Barcelona, Enric Granados Street and the area around the Fòrum de les Cultures; during similar days in two periods of time - in January of 2015 and 2017. The second objective is intended to better understand how different types of POS’ Twitter-users draw urban patterns. The Origin-Destination patterns generated illustrate new social behaviours, addressed to multifunctional uses. This chapter aims to be influential in the use of UGC analysis for planning purposes and to increase quality of life.

Keywords: User-generated content; Big data; Twitter; Public open spaces; Spatial analysis.