Publications

2015
El Berguedà un medi innovador resilient: passat, present i futur
Pallares-Barbera, M. & Vera, A., 2015. El Berguedà un medi innovador resilient: passat, present i futur. Revista Erol, Depósito legal: B-17569-1982, ISSN: 02 12-445 , 125 , pp. 32-35.Abstract

Resum

La capacitat d’adaptació i de resistència depenen freqüentment de factors complementaris als purament econòmics. Aprendre del fracàs i encarar-s’hi pot ser moltes vegades tant important com obtenir l’èxit. El Berguedà s’ha enfrontat a diferents crisis al llarg dels darrers 100 anys i immediatament hi ha hagut períodes de recuperació i re-emergència; fet que explicaria a priori la capacitat de resiliència d’aquest territori econòmic. Els emprenedors econòmics, socials i polítics han desenvolupat diferents accions per enfortir els processos de desenvolupament econòmic local. Però, Quins són els agents resilients? Quines han estat les estratègies en el seu recorregut? Com es troben ara?

Els anys 90s del passat segle el Berguedà s’enfrontava a una profunda crisis consistent en la desindustrialització del sector tèxtil i miner, que ja feia anys que persistia. A partir del 1994 el PIB començà a repuntar i també ho va fer la representació del sector industrial en el PIB. El sector tèxtil es va concentrar, i els sectors de la transformació del metall, i l’alimentari van ser els responsables principals d’aquesta remuntada; que també anava acompanyada del sector serveis, principalment cap al turisme, i la construcció. L’entramat de petites i mitjanes empreses era d'estructura familiar. No eren empreses de nova creació; algunes procedien de finals dels anys 1970s, i la majoria d'elles van ser fundades durant els anys vuitanta; i en el període dels 1990s van canviar d’activitat. Es distingien dos tipus de fundadors: a) empleats d'altres empreses que es constituïen com a socis fundadors, però que anteriorment ja estaven involucrats en negocis similars, -com a empleats a sou, o amb participació en el capital d'una altra empresa; b) propietaris de petits negocis familiars, del sector de la distribució o de petits tallers que ampliaven, amb nous socis fora del negoci familiar, i fundaven l'empresa en un sector succedani del primer. Eren empresaris de perfil altament dinàmic, que tenien o havien tingut fins a 10 empreses simultànies; algunes creades ad hoc, per respondre a necessitats puntuals de la demanda i que tancaven, un cop aquesta satisfeta.

erol_125.pdf
PATRIMONIO INDUSTRIAL, REVITALIZACIÓN ECONÓMICA Y COMPACIDAD URBANA EN EL POBLENOU-22@BARCELONA ¿UN NUEVO MODELO BARCELONA?
Jutgla, E.D. & Pallares-Barbera, M., 2015. PATRIMONIO INDUSTRIAL, REVITALIZACIÓN ECONÓMICA Y COMPACIDAD URBANA EN EL POBLENOU-22@BARCELONA ¿UN NUEVO MODELO BARCELONA?. Boletín de la Asociación de Geógrafos Españoles , 69 , pp. 9-35. Publisher's VersionAbstract
La evolución de la ciudad postindustrial se reestructuró a partir de nuevas actividades, generalmente de servicios, en espacios donde previamente se habían desarrollado procesos de desindustrialización. El objetivo de este artículo es analizar como el patrimonio industrial se convierte en un elemento competitivo de la ciudad del conocimiento, dónde el sector público presionado por los movimientos ciudadanos, introduce políticas de protección de
este patrimonio en favor de la construcción de la ciudad cultural. La pregunta estructural es analizar cómo se produce el patrimonio industrial, cómo se consume, y cuáles son los agentes que participan en ambos procesos; y cómo el patrimonio deviene un elemento básico del proceso de revitalización económica y de compacidad urbana en el Poblenou-22@Barcelona; finalmente se postula como esta estrategia representa un Nuevo Modelo Barcelona.
La política de clústeres en el área del Poblenou, donde se localiza el plan 22@Barcelona, representó una propuesta innovadora para la transformación urbanística, económica y social de la ciudad de Barcelona.
patrimonio_industrial_dot_pallares_bage69.pdf
INDUSTRIAL HERITAGE, ECONOMIC REVITALIZATION AND URBAN COMPACTNESS IN POBLENOU-22@BARCELONA. A NEW BARCELONA MODEL?
Pallares-Barbera, M. & Dot, E., 2015. INDUSTRIAL HERITAGE, ECONOMIC REVITALIZATION AND URBAN COMPACTNESS IN POBLENOU-22@BARCELONA. A NEW BARCELONA MODEL?. Boletín de la Asociación de Geógrafos Españoles , 69 , pp. 493-497. Publisher's VersionAbstract

Poblenou’s intense development has been a result of the urban project 22@Barcelona
(2000) which revitalized urban morphology and the area’s previous economic downturn
during period 2000-2013. This article analyzes how the industrial heritage remaining in
Poblenou becomes a competitive element of the so-called city of knowledge, where civil
society forced the public sector to introduce policies to protect this heritage for the construction
of the cultural city. The structural question is to analyze how the industrial heritage
was produced, how it was consumed, and which agents were involved in both processes.
In addition, the focus of the paper is to study how heritage becomes a basic element of the
process of economic revitalization, of symbolic projection and of urban compactness in the
urban project Poblenou-22@Barcelona. Economic cluster policy in the area represents an
innovative strategy for the urban, economic and social transformation of the whole city of
Barcelona.

industrial_heritage_dot_pallares_bage69.pdf
2014
The entrepreneurial city. New bases for the urban space in crisis. The 22@Barcelona (La ciudad emprendedora. Nuevas bases para el espacio urbano en crisis. El 22@Barcelona)
Pallares-Barbera, M., Dot Jutgla, E. & Casellas, A., 2014. The entrepreneurial city. New bases for the urban space in crisis. The 22@Barcelona (La ciudad emprendedora. Nuevas bases para el espacio urbano en crisis. El 22@Barcelona). In Geografía de la crisis económica en España. Valencia. Valencia: Publicacions de la Universitat de València, pp. 691-716.Abstract

A principios del siglo XXI, la innovación tecnológica basada en el conocimiento como factor de producción y la innovación en la organización de los procesos de pro­ducción o en las redes de empresas se posicionaron como elementos relevantes que aportaron un mayor crecimiento económico a nivel local y regional (CTESC, 2009), sobre todo urbano. En la segunda década de este siglo la fuerte crisis financiera ha convertido la ciudad en un elemento más vulnerable, donde los factores competiti­vos que habían prevalecido hasta este momento tendrían que ponerse en cuestión; y otros elementos deberían reinventarse para crear la nueva ciudad del siglo XXI. La definición de ciudad emprendedora, que se propone como objetivo de estudio en este capítulo, persigue resultados de éxito competitivo en la innovación urbana a partir de redefinirse, basándose en un cambio de mentalidad de los agentes urbanos, incorporando ideas de futuro. En la nueva ciudad, la innovación se encuentra, a ve­ces, en procesos de superación local, que no necesariamente tienen que incluir alta tecnología, sino que son procesos de estrategias ganadoras; donde las empresas com­petitivas en su entorno local generan al mismo tiempo externalidades positivas en su entorno inmediato que son de diferente naturaleza, no solo económicas, sino sociales que contribuyen a la creación de redes, tanto emprendedoras como interpersonales. El incremento de las redes envuelve y fortalece el barrio y otros nuevos negocios se instauran contribuyendo a la riqueza y al bienestar entre las personas, con coalicio­nes urbanas que contribuyen al desarrollo económico y al incremento emprendedor, dando lugar a una atmósfera emprendedora. El territorio delimitado por el plan 22@Barcelona ofrece un espacio interesante para estudiar procesos de cambio en el mar­co de ciudad emprendedora. A partir del año 2000 que se aprueba el Plan de Reforma Urbana (PRU), comienzan a actuar en el barrio los agentes sociales, los públicos y los privados. El barrio está en plena ebullición. Los cambios se notan de semana en semana. A partir del 2008, un nuevo periodo se intuye en el 22@Barcelona, nuevas estrategias se delinean y los agentes tienen necesariamente que replantear objetivos. En este artículo se explican las bases históricas, las condiciones previas y los resul­tados actuales; además se analizan los elementos que podrían contribuir a empujar la ciudad o el barrio hacia el futuro.

An appraisal of the CORINE land cover database in airport catchment area analysis using a GIS approach
SUAU-SANCHEZ, P., BURGHOUWT, G. & Pallares-Barbera, M., 2014. An appraisal of the CORINE land cover database in airport catchment area analysis using a GIS approach. Journal of Air Transport Management , 34 , pp. 12-16. an_appraisal_of_the_corine_land_cover_database-2014_post_script.pdf
2013
CO-EVOLUTION AND NETWORK FORMATION IN THE AIR TRANSPORT SECTOR. ISBN: 978-84-8458-429-2
Suau-Sanchez, P. & Pallares-Barbera, M., 2013. CO-EVOLUTION AND NETWORK FORMATION IN THE AIR TRANSPORT SECTOR. ISBN: 978-84-8458-429-2. In Crisis económica e impactos territoriales. Girona (Spain). Girona (Spain): Universitat de Girona. V Jornadas de Geografía Económica Asociación de Geógrafos Españoles, pp. 164-177.Abstract

Air transportation has been a common theme in economic geography literature in relation to the analysis of airline routes and flows, the study of international supply chains, location analysis, the impact of airport noise on residential property values and environmental issues (e.g., WILTOX et al. 2007; BURGHOUWT, 2007; LEINBACH and BOWEN, 2004; SEGUÍ and MARTÍNEZ, 2004; GRAHAM, 1995; ESPEY and LOPEZ, 2000; GÁMIR and RAMOS, 2002; TOMKINS et al., 1998; STUTZ, 1986; KARASKA and BRAMHALL, 1960). Meanwhile, economic geography has moved away from traditional economic analysis and has become a more interdisciplinary speciality adopting insights from social, cultural and political sciences (BOSCHMA and FRENKEN, 2006). A relatively recent development in economic geography is the evolutionary approach, which combines different kinds of quantitative and qualitative methodologies, all based on an evolutionary approach (BOSCHMA and FRENKEN, 2007), which borrows the Darwinian concepts of selection, retention (heredity) and variety in order to apply them to social sciences. This approach overcomes static theories and focuses on innovation and technology as elements of self-transformation. This chapter discusses the evolution, the current situation and the future prospects of the air transportation industry. The complexity of this industry and the constraints on the capacity of airports to cope with future growth are the central elements considered in discussing the limits of network formation. We have identified the selective environment (the liberalised market and the context of insufficient capacity), technology (engineering and aeronautics technology) and policies (air transportation regulations and other policies) as three co-evolving elements. In a context of increasing demand and environmental Co-evolution and network formation in the air transport sector, the issue is how the co-evolution of these three factors has influenced the path for coping with the level of network formation demanded by society.

 

CITATION:

SUAU-SANCHEZ, Pere; PALLARES-BARBERA, Montserrat (2012). Co-evolution and network formation in the air transport sector. In Crisis económica e impactos territoriales. Girona: V Jornadas de Geografía Económica AGE Univ. de Girona, ISBN: 978-84-8458-429-2 pp. 164-177.

 

1_6_suau_sanchez_pallares_barbera.pdf crisis_economica_e_impactos_territoriales.pdf
Suau-Sanchez, P. & Pallares-Barbera, M., 2013. An evolutionary approach to air transport: market, technology and institutional co-evolution. Documents d'Anàlisi Geogràfica , 59 (3) , pp. 543-557. WebsiteAbstract

Air transportation has been a common theme in economic geography literature in relation
to the analysis of airline routes and flows, the study of international supply chains, location
analysis, the impact of airport noise on residential property values and environmental
issues (e.g., WILTOX et al. 2007; BURGHOUWT, 2007; LEINBACH and BOWEN,
2004; SEGUÍ and MARTÍNEZ, 2004; GRAHAM, 1995; ESPEY and LOPEZ, 2000;
GÁMIR and RAMOS, 2002; TOMKINS et al., 1998; STUTZ, 1986; KARASKA and
BRAMHALL, 1960). Meanwhile, economic geography has moved away from traditional
economic analysis and has become a more interdisciplinary speciality adopting insights
from social, cultural and political sciences (BOSCHMA and FRENKEN, 2006). A
relatively recent development in economic geography is the evolutionary approach, which
combines different kinds of quantitative and qualitative methodologies, all based on an
evolutionary approach (BOSCHMA and FRENKEN, 2007), which borrows the Darwinian
concepts of selection, retention (heredity) and variety in order to apply them to social
sciences. This approach overcomes static theories and focuses on innovation and
technology as elements of self-transformation.

evolutionary_suau_pallares_2013.pdf
2012
Pallares-Barbera, M., et al., 2012. BIENESTAR, PLANIFICACIÓN URBANA Y BIODIVERSIDAD. EL CASO DE BARCELONA. In Regional Science International Conference. Bilbao (Spain). Bilbao (Spain): Regional Science Association, pp. 1-18.Abstract

El objetivo de esta comunicación es estudiar el bienestar de la población urbana, basada en dos pilares fundamentales: la proximidad a los servicios de la población, y la biodiversidad urbana. El valor social de este proyecto consiste en combinar elementos de urbanismo ético que persigue el interés público (localizando servicios a la población), factores de biodiversidad, y Sistemas de Información Geográfica (SIG). El principal objetivo del proyecto es analizar los niveles de bienestar de la población basada en la biodiversidad y la provisión de servicios con la construcción de una tecnología digital e interactiva basada en un SIG que permita trasladar el conocimiento del bienestar de un territorio urbano, en términos de información de la provisión de servicios y de la biodiversidad urbana, a la población y a los agentes implicados y, a su vez, reforzar el sentimiento de identidad.

comunicacion_pallares_boada_y_otros.pdf regional_science_nov23_2012_2_modalitat_compatibilitat.pdf
Casellas, A., Dot-Jutgla, E. & Pallares-Barbera, M., 2012. Artists, Cultural Gentrification and Public Policy. Urbani Izziv Urban Challenge , 23 (1) , pp. S104 - S114. WebsiteAbstract

Since the 1980s, artists have been studied as agents of urban gentrification. Well established theories and case studies have provided numerous evidences of the role of artists as initiators of the gentrification process in working-class neighborhoods. From a productive-side perspective, placing an emphasis on the rent-gap and land development, as well as consumption-side perspective, analyzing the features of individuals, art production and artists have been identified as a source of initial gentrification. Complementary theorizations have studied the second wave of displacement produced by the massive arrival of private capital, which often has affected the artists themselves. The present paper adds to the body of literature than identifies the public sector as another key agent of gentrification. The paper analyzes the role of Barcelona’s public sector in the process of implementing this redevelopment program, and its interaction with artists in the neighborhood. In specific terms, it discusses the case of the Hangar Collective, located in Can Ricart, an old factory building which had been the home of small firms and artist groups. This center was at the heart of the urban struggle to maintain the status of firms and artists in the neighborhood, and to preserve the architectonic structure of the old factory complex. By 2010, once displaced small firms and groups of low-budget artists, only the artist’s association with Hangar, supported by public funds, remained in Can Ricart.
Keywords: public policy, gentrification, artist, new economy, Barcelona

urbani-izziv-en-2012-23-supplement-1-010_artist.pdf
Suau-Sanchez, P., et al., 2012. Relational Dimensions of Regional Growth: Introduction to the Special Issue. Urbani Izziv Urban Challenge , 23 (1) , pp. S2 - S6. WebsiteAbstract

The study of the distribution of economic activities across space has always been the essence of economic geography, regional economics, and related disciplines. Empirical analyses have provided significant evidence, for example, that especially urbanized regions are very successful in developing innovation and employment (e.g., Wedemeier 2009). A prerequisite for the generation of economic growth is, however, the capability of economic agents to be creative and to develop new ideas. A relational perspective places the analytical focus on the complex nexus of economic relations between actors and structures. It has been argued that changes in the relations between actors and structures foster dynamic transformations in the spatial organization of economic activities (Boggs and Rantisi 2003). Hence, relational economic growth is concerned with the ways in which socio-spatial relations of actors are interlaced with structures and processes of economic change at various geographical scales (Yeung, 2005). Bathelt and Glückler (2003) argued that the relational perspective has three fundamental components: (a) economic actors operate within frameworks of social and institutional relations; (b) economic processes are path-dependent, with future actions constrained to some extent by past decisions; and (c) economic processes can also shaped by agents’ free will, unconstrained by existing development paths. According to Jones (2009, p. 487) recent years “have witnessed a burgeoning of work on 'thinking space relationally'”, even though there seem exists some silence on factors that, for example, constrain, structure, and connect space (see also Sunley 2008).

urbani-izziv-en-2012-23-supplement-1-000_introd.pdf
Pallares-Barbera, M., et al., 2012. Globalising Economic Spaces, Uneven Development and Regional Challenges: Introduction to the Special Issue. Urbani Izziv Urban Challenge , 23 (2) , pp. S2 - S10. WebsiteAbstract

The phenomenon of spatially uneven development has always captured the interest of economic geographers, forming one of the foundation stones of the discipline and a major research focus in analyses of both advanced or emerging economies (Hayter and Patchell, 2011; Sheppard et al., 2009). The economic exploitation of localized resources to improve the quality of people’s lives inevitably leads to widening of interregional economic disparities, engendering dynamics, which, over time, change little and are rarely reversed. Interregional disparities simply transform, assume different guises and, at times, shift between places. They never really vanish. And convergence is rare, as investigations of interregional disparities in Europe have shown (Badingera et al., 2004; Martin, 2001) and the USA (Caselli and Coleman, 2001). However, measuring the dynamics of interregional divergence and convergence is both demanding and problematic (Puga, 1999; Rey and Janikas, 2005). Consequently, the dynamics of spatially uneven development remain a major research question with significant and enduring policy relevance.

urbani-izziv-en-2012-23-supplement-2-000_introd.pdf
Barcelona Urban Evolution from 1860
Pallares-Barbera, M. & Duch, J., 2012. Barcelona Urban Evolution from 1860. http://worldmap.harvard.edu/maps/Barcelona_urban_evolution/CRE. Barcelona Urban Evolution since 1860 barcelona_cerda_eixample_evolution.docx cerda_and_barcelona.docx
Urban Planning and service provision in the Cerdà Barcelona Expansion
Pallares-Barbera, M. & Duch, J., 2012. Urban Planning and service provision in the Cerdà Barcelona Expansion. http://worldmap.harvard.edu/maps/Barcelona_Cerda_1860/CRD. Barcelona_Cerda_1860Abstract

Cerdà and Barcelona: The need for a new city and service provision

The objective of this project is to study Cerdà’s Plan of Urban Expansion of Barcelona from 1860; specifically, how and why it was conceived in a unique way in which the provision of services to the population was an important part of it. Ildefonso Cerdà based his expansion proposal on an in-depth socio-statistic study of old Barcelona’s population conditions. High mortality rates of the working class population, and poor health and education conditions pushed Cerdà to design a new type of urban planning, which he defined as “urbanism”, In the proposal of the new city he planned the location of services, such as marketplaces, schools and hospitals. In the first part of this paper we introduce the urban and political preconditions of Barcelona and the statistics on which Cerdà based his contribution. In the second part, we use location theory and Geographic Information System (GIS) to analyze the pattern of location and population served by markets and hospitals. In addition, using topographic maps from 1926 and 1975 we study the development of the Expansion up to when it was fully developed. The evolution of the city differed from Cerdà’s proposal, partly due to unexpected increases in population density, built environment and larger building occupation size. Nevertheless, Cerdà’s lay-out of streets and avenues has prevailed.

barcelona_cerda_service_provision_1860.docx cerda_and_barcelona.docx
Dot Jutgla, E., Pallares-Barbera, M. & Casellas, A., 2012. Productive gentrification, deindustrialization and industrial relocation (Gentrificació productiva, desindustrialització i relocalització industrial). Treballs de la Societat Catalana de Geografia , 73 , pp. 27-53. WebsiteAbstract

Abstract: Productive gentrification, deindustrialization and industrial relocation
The aim of this paper is to present a theoretical discussion on the definition and identification of the process of productive gentrification. From the discussions of the concept of gentrification, broadly conceptualized and studied in processes taking place in residential areas of central cities, the contribution of this paper focuses on redefining the concept in the production sphere, taking businesses as units of analysis and institutions as agents of change. To illustrate this, the article examines the impact of the 22 @ Barcelona project initiated in 2000 in the neighborhood of Poblenou, Barcelona. The analysis focuses on the study of Can Ricart, analyzing the process of expulsion of the industries of an old textile industrial complex, which by the time of the approved urban renewal plan, it contained 34 small and medium enterprises from various sectors.
Keywords: productive gentrification, urban renewal, 22@Barcelona, urban policy.

2011
Suau-Sanchez, P., Pallares-Barbera, M. & Paül, V., 2011. Incorporating annoyance in airport environmental policy: noise, societal response and community participation. Journal of Transport Geography , 19 , pp. 275–284. WebsiteAbstract

Airport capacity continues to be one of the air transport issues that creates the most concern. The major environmental constraint for airports is the noise generated by aircraft. Annoyed communities living around airports have become a limiting factor for airport capacity and operability. This paper brings together the existing literature in the fields of airport environmental capacity, non-acoustic factors of noise annoyance, NIMBYism and environmental conflicts. We also analyze the socio-environmental conflict between Barcelona airport and the community of Gavà Mar. This case shows that the lack of trust between parties, the impossibility of predicting noise exposure, the absence of opportunities for civil society to speak and the difficulty of accessing relevant information foster annoyance and mobilization in the communities that live around the airport. In addition, it is shown that, in such a situation, communities’ reactions can evolve to a post-NIMBY stage in which proactive attitudes replace reactive ones.
Keywords

Airport capacity;
NIMBY syndrome;
Non-acoustic factors of noise annoyance;
Airport policy;
Barcelona airport

Pallares-Barbera, M., Badia, A. & Duch, J., 2011. Cerda and Barcelona: The need for a new city and service provision. Urbani izziv Urban Challenge , Volume 22, no. 2 (December 2011) , pp. 122-136. Publisher's VersionAbstract

The objective of this paper is to study Cerdà’s Plan of Urban Expansion of Barcelona from 1860; specifically, how and why it was conceived in a unique way in which the provision of services to the population was an important part of it. Ildefonso Cerdà based his expansion proposal on an in-depth socio-statistic study of old Barcelona’s population conditions. High mortality rates of the working class population, and poor health and education conditions pushed Cerdà to design a new type of urban planning, which he defined as “urbanism”, In the proposal of the new city he planned the location of services, such as marketplaces, schools and hospitals. In the first part of this paper we introduce the urban and political preconditions of Barcelona and the statistics on which Cerdà based his contribution. In the second part, we use location theory and Geographic Information System (GIS) to analyze the pattern of location and population served by markets and hospitals. In addition, using topographic maps from 1926 and 1975 we study the development of the Expansion up to when it was fully developed. The evolution of the city differed from Cerdà’s proposal, partly due to unexpected increases in population density, built environment and larger building occupation size. Nevertheless, Cerdà’s lay-out of streets and avenues has prevailed.

Keywords: urban planning, location theory, optimization, wellbeing, GIS, spatial decisions support system

urbani-izziv-en-2011-22-02-005.pdf
Pallares-Barbera, M., Badia, A. & Duch, J., 2011. CERDÀ AND BARCELONA. OPTIMAL LOCATION OF SERVICES AND URBAN PLANNING. In Association of American Geographers Meeting. Seattle. Seattle: AAG.Abstract

In this paper we analyze a case study, Cerdà’s Urban Expansion of Barcelona
(1860). We reexamine Cerdà’s positioning of marketplaces and hospitals using location
theory as well as GIS for data capturing and analysis. In addition, using topographic
map-series we study the developments of the Expansion up to now. We study the
allocation of services in the urban grid as a way of distributing wellbeing among
individuals. The actual evolution of the city through history differed from Cerdà’s
proposal, partly due to unexpected increases in population density, built environment
and larger building occupation size. Nevertheless, Cerdà’s lay-out of streets and
avenues has prevailed. Moreover, later plans of urban expansion and restructuration of
the city have been in line with Cerdà’s ideas. Urban planning is an important factor in
the determination of quality of life and wellbeing. This paper is concerned with a design
of urban environment that seeks better spatial efficiency and social wellbeing.
Keywords. Urban planning, location theory, optimization, wellbeing, GIS, Spatial
Decisions Support System.

urban_planning_Cerdà_7.pdf
2010
Pallares-Barbera, M., 2010. How to change in difficult times? Advantages and disadvantages in the competitive Barcelona and symbolic economy (Com canviar quan els canvis són difícils? Avantatges i desavantatges de la Barcelona competitiva des de l’economia simbòlica). Treballs de la Societat Catalana de Geografia , 69 , pp. 229-245. Publisher's VersionAbstract

Despite of historical economic changes, cities have always been the efficient
pinpoint of production systems. In this article I postulate that at the first
decade of the twenty-first century, the symbolic economy seems the equivalent
to what in previous periods were the Fordism or the Flexible Production System.
The objective is to analyze how the symbolic economy is formed, how
the cultural good is commodified and who demands it. In Barcelona, buildings
as the MACBA, designed by Richard Meier, or the AGBAR tower, by Jean
Nouvel, are public and private investments, respectively, which constitute two
of the global city symbols. The MACBA was specifically designed to be a
cultural institution. Otherwise, the AGBAR tower is an office premise. In this
article I argue that many of the symbolic elements were not built as such, but
they are part of the symbolic economy of a city.
Key words: Commodification, symbolic economy, economic geography.

10-pallares_symbolic_city_2010.pdf
Dot, E., Casellas, A. & Pallares-Barbera, M., 2010. Productive gentrification in Barcelona: The effects of the new economy (Gentrificación productiva en Barcelona: efectos del nuevo espacio económico). In IV JORNADAS DE GEOGRAFÍA ECONÓMICA. León, Spain. León, Spain: Grupo de Geografía Económica de la AGE.Abstract

In the year 2000 it started in Barcelona´s Poblenou neighborhood a strategy of implementation of urban regeneration and economic development under the leadership of the public sector. The implementation of the 22@Barcelona project involves a transformation toward specialization in knowledge-intensive tertiary activity. As a result of new urban planning guidelines, the project has led to a productive process of displacement of traditional activities located in the new technological district. This paper presents a theoretical approach for the identification of the process of “productive gentrification", a concept that helps to interpret the relationships and effects on the productive base of the new economic space. The phenomenon of gentrification has been broadly defined and studied at residential level, especially within the Anglo-Saxon literature. The contribution of this paper focuses on redefining the concept in the field of production, taking business as units of analysis. To this end, we analyze the impact that the 22@Barcelona has generated focusing on the case of the industrial complex of Can Ricart. The urban reform plan implemented under the 22@Barcelona focuses on defining and promoting productive activities for new economy, which has resulted in the relocation of businesses to new metropolitan areas or its closing down. In this sense, the interpretation of the relationship between economic activities and connections of the new urban space can be understood from the productive gentrification concept, which is formulated and discussed in the article. Key words: productive gentrification, urban redevelopment, 22@Barcelona, public policy.

productive_gentrificat_bcn_2010.pdf
Casellas, A., Dot, E. & Pallares-Barbera, M., 2010. Image creation, visibility and tourism. Growth strategies for the future (Creación de imagen, visibilidad y turismo como estrategias de crecimiento económico de la ciudad). Finisterra , XLV (90) , pp. 153-172.Abstract

Image creation, visibility and tourism. Growth strategies for the future? The aim of this paper is to analyse how Barcelona’s economic growth since the 1990s has been based on the production of advanced services, in which image creation and tourism have played a key role. In this context, we emphasise the role played by macro-events, such as the 1992 Olympic Games, which have brought about important changes to Barcelona’s economic model, and we highlight the importance of public-private partnerships and strategic planning. Additionally, we analyse the economic impact of tourism upon the city in the period 1990-2010, and we conclude with some reflections on the implications upon public space entailed by this growth strategy. Key words: Barcelona, tourism, economic development, public space, marketing.

finisterra_2010.pdf

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