Publications

2010
The fuzziness of knowledge intensive production: the new economic space of Poblenou (Barcelona) (L’ambigüitat de la producció intensiva en coneixement: el nou espai econòmic del Poblenou)
Dot Jutgla, E., Casellas, A. & Pallares-Barbera, M., 2010. The fuzziness of knowledge intensive production: the new economic space of Poblenou (Barcelona) (L’ambigüitat de la producció intensiva en coneixement: el nou espai econòmic del Poblenou). Documents d'Anàlisi Geogràfica , 56 (3) , pp. 389-408.Abstract

At the beginning of the 21st century the economic activity of the Poblenou (Barcelona) has been transformed and it has been producing deep changes that affect the urban morphology and the behavior of economical and social agents of the neighborhood. This transformation takes place within a political structural frame, which involves an urban reform plan to convert this axis of the city into a new competitive technological and digital cluster. To study and evaluate the urban and economic transformation process of the area, this paper is divided into two parts. First, from a literature review approach, the paper analyzes the concept of knowledge economy and the implications that this productive model has on cities. Second, the paper focuses on the study of the development of the economic space of Poblenou and the implantation of the 22@Barcelona plan in period 2000-2006. Then, the definition and classification of economic knowledge activities is discussed. The analysis demonstrates that the definition of knowledge economy is fuzzy. The concept of knowledge as added value in the production is not easy to measure due to its intangible character; however, knowledge is included in the production process through new technologies and in other economic sectors. Key words: new economy, knowledge economy, urban regeneration, 22@Barcelona.

new_economic_spaces_BCN_2010.pdf
2009
Casellas, A. & Pallares-Barbera, M., 2009. Public sector intervention in embodying new economy in inner urban areas: the Barcelona experience. Urban Studies , 46 (5-6) , pp. 1137-1155.
Dot Jutgla, E., Pallares-Barbera, M. & Vera Martín, A., 2009. EL 22@BARCELONA O EL LIDERAZGO DEL ESPACIO URBANO. LA ECONOMÍA DEL CONOCIMIENTO EN LA BARCELONA DEL SIGLO XXI. In J. M. Feria Toribio, A. García García, & J. A. Ojeda Rivera, ed. Localización: Territorios, sociedades y políticas . Sevilla, Spain. Sevilla, Spain: Universidad Pablo de Olavide ISBN 978-84-933457-8-5, pp. 525-536. WebsiteAbstract

En este artículo se distinguen y caracterizan las diferentes tipologías de actividades, estructuras urbanas y sociales que han convivido durante estos dos últimos siglos en el barrio del Poblenou de Barcelona. En este sentido la estructura del artículo incide especialmente en las morfologías resultantes de la nueva economía industrial. En concreto se analiza el proyecto 22@Barcelona (22@Bcn) como elemento que ha definido el espacio urbano de la nueva economía del Poblenou de principios del siglo veintiuno.
En segundo lugar se analiza el territorio con los agentes sociales y económicos, y las organizaciones capaces de adaptarse al nuevo escenario. La economía creativa que se podría definir como aquella dónde el mayor énfasis está en la imaginación humana, la innovación y la creatividad, repone en el reconocimiento de que la tecnología es la herramienta que ha permitido el cambio entre la economía industrial y la del conocimiento. Así, se podría decir que la relación entre creación y tecnología se cruzan y constituyen los determinantes competitivos de las nuevas empresas.
Finalmente, en tercer lugar se introducen algunos de los principales conflictos de la nueva transformación de la ciudad de Barcelona. Por un lado las distintas velocidades del 22@Bcn dan cómo resultado la reconversión del distrito industrial en tecnológico y, al mismo tiempo, las críticas de los vecinos que aprecian diferencias entre el avance del eje de negocios y el progreso de su entorno social.

22bcn_liderazgo_2009.pdf
Pallares-Barbera, M., Tulla, A. & Pallares-Blanch, M., 2009. Nation boundaries and the twin city model (La frontera y el modelo de regiones gemelas). In Territorios, sociedades y políticas. Sevilla, Spain. Sevilla, Spain: Universidad Pablo de Olavide, pp. 511-524.Abstract region_gemelas_2009.pdf
Suau-Sanchez, M., Burghouwt, G. & Pallares-Barbera, M., 2009. The Spanish aviation network: the competitive position of Madrid and the Mediterranean axis, 2000-2008. In Papers from the Annual Meeting of the Association of American Geographers . San Francisco. San Francisco: Association of American Geographers. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Since the liberalization of the European air transport market large airlines have built hub-and-spoke networks. However, since 2001 a number of European hubs have been torn down by their home based carriers. For example, British Airways at London Gatwick and Air France at Clermont-Ferrand. One of the last examples of network rationalization is the end of hub operations at Barcelona airport by Iberia. Instead, Iberia has been implementing a single hub operation in Madrid-Barajas.The first goal of this paper is to discuss the evolution of the Spanish airline network for the period 2000-2008. With this paper the authors fill a gap in the current scientific literature about the changing the connectivity levels and the competitive position of the Spanish airports and airline networks. Special attention will be given to the recent changes in the role of Madrid and Barcelona. We use the so-called NETSCAN model to quantify connectivity levels of airports and airline networks. Netscan measures the number of direct and indirect (transfer) connections and weighs these connections for their quality in terms of transfer and detour times.The second goal of this paper is to evaluate the competitive position in the air transport market of the Madrid mega-city region and the airport system of the Mediterranean axis (airports of Girona, Barcelona, Reus, Valencia and Alicante). First findings of this ongoing research show that in the Mediterranean axis while direct connectivity to Europe improves thanks to low-cost carriers, direct and indirect connectivity in the intercontinental market decreases dramatically. Descriptors: Airports | Evolution Models |
Tulla, A., Pallares-Barbera, M. & Vera, A., 2009. Naturbanization and Local Development in the mountain areas of the Catalan Pyrenees. In Naturbanization. New identities and processes for rural-natural areas. Leiden, Netherlands: 265 . Leiden, Netherlands: 265 : Taylor & Francis Group, Publishers, pp. 75-92. Publisher's VersionAbstract

http://www.crcnetbase.com/doi/abs/10.1201/9780203881149.ch4
ABSTRACT: A process of urbanization has developed around the alpine ski resorts and the Natural Protected Areas (NPA). There are also processes of abandonment of settlement populations and mountain cultures by the disappearance of traditional economic activities. This entails a contradiction: the natural features of a territory can facilitate naturbanization, but it can also deteriorate the natural and socioeconomic environment of the territory. Local development, in the mountainous areas of Europe, can be explained by the existence of comparative advantages with regard to urban areas. In the Catalan Pyrenees, the theory of comparative advantage and the use of the territorial embeddedness theory enable us to demonstrate that, in the future, this short term analysis will have to be replaced by longer term analyses that also take into account environmental, social and cultural externalities.

natururbanization_local_development.pdf
2008
Els efectes de la immigració estrangera sobre la despesa
ARCOS, D., SERRA RAMONEDA, A. & PALLARES-BARBERA, M. (S.C.), 2008. Els efectes de la immigració estrangera sobre la despesa. In La immigració, un motor econòmic. Reflexions entorn de l’impacte de la població estrangera en l’economia catalana. Barcelona. Barcelona: Obra Social Caixa de Sabadell. Fundació Jaume Bofill. Publisher's VersionAbstract

 

CATALAN

Des que alguns Homo sapiens van sortir de l’Àfrica i van escampar-se pel món, la història de la humanitat s’explica pels moviments migratoris. Aquí a Catalunya el fenomen ha adquirit una importància crucial i serveix per explicar el ràpid creixement demogràfic després d’un llarg període en què érem sis milions. Ara en som 7,4 i en els darrers cinc anys la població immigrada ha passat de ser el 4,4% del total de la població catalana a ser-ne el 9,1%. Una proporció que ens situa al nivell dels països de l’Europa rica, que són un destí atractiu per als qui busquen un futur millor per a ells i els seus fills.

El paisatge humà del nostre país ha canviat. No és estrany que el tema estigui present als mitjans de comunicació, als discursos dels polítics i a les converses ciutadanes; de vegades amb preocupació, d’altres amb optimisme, sempre amb interès.

En un context en què apareixen opinions, estudis, reflexions sobre la immigració hem volgut posar-hi la nostra mirada d’economistes; la nostra aportació està feta des d’una perspectiva concreta i limitada, sabem la importància que tenen els altres enfocaments i hem volgut fer la nostra aportació a un debat en el qual totes les veus han de ser escoltades.

Volem agrair a la Fundació Jaume Bofill que ens hagi ofert el marc institucional i la capacitat de convocatòria que va fer possible un exercici de reflexió conjunta, que ha estat una experiència intel·lectual que ens ha marcat positivament. Agraïm a l’Obra Social de Caixa Sabadell l’interès mostrat des del començament per la publicació d’aquest treball.

Aquelles sessions no haurien estat tan fructíferes sense l’ajuda de la nostra col·lega i amiga Maria Franch, que va fer feines de documentalista i de transcriptora que s’han tornat a revelar essencials quan hem ordenat els materials treballats.

Amb l’esperança que siguin elements positius en un debat que, ben segur, ha de continuar.

 

la_immigracio_un_motor_economic_fundacio_jaume_bofill.pdf
Casellas, A., Dot, E. & Pallares-Barbera, M., 2008. Estrategia de regeneración urbana y procesos de gentrificación en el distrito Tecnológico de Barcelona. In Globalización económica: amenazas y oportunidades para los territorios. Valencia (Spain). Valencia (Spain): Nau Llibres, pp. 109-118.Abstract

ABSTRACT
Since the 1980s, artists have been studied as
agents of urban gentrification. Well established
theories and case studies have provided numerous
evidences of the role of artists as initiators of the
gentrification process in working-class neighborhoods.
From a productive-side perspective, placing an
emphasis on the rent-gap and land development, as
well as consumption-side perspective, analyzing the
features of individuals, art production and artists have
been identified as a source of initial gentrification.
Complementary theorizations have studied the second
wave of displacement produced by the massive
arrival of private capital, which often has affected
the artists themselves. The present paper adds to the
body of literature than identifies the public sector as
another key agent of gentrification. It is examined
by exploring the experience of a traditional working
class neighbourhood in Barcelona (Spain) which has
undergone a dramatic urban regeneration process led
by the city council and that has affected groups of
artists in a very different ways.
Key words: public policy, gentrification, artist,
new economy, Barcelona.

RESUMEN
Desde los años 1980, los artistas han sido estudiados
como agentes de gentrificación urbana. Diferentes
teorías consolidadas y estudios de caso han
proporcionado numerosas evidencias del papel de
los artistas como iniciadores del proceso de gentrificación
en barrios de clase obrera. Desde el punto de
vista productivo, haciendo énfasis en el diferencial
de renta del suelo, así como desde el punto de vista
de consumo, haciendo énfasis en las características
de los individuos, la presencia de artistas ha sido
identificada como una fuente inicial de gentrificación.
Otras teorías complementarias han estudiado la
oleada de desplazamientos producidos por la masiva
llegada de capital privado, que a menudo ha afectado
a algunos de los propios artistas. En el presente documento
se presenta un enfoque teórico que identifica
al sector público como agente clave de gentrificación.
En concreto se explora la experiencia del barrio de
El Poblenou en Barcelona, el cual ha experimentado
un drástico proceso de regeneración urbana liderado
por el ayuntamiento y que ha afectado a grupos de
artistas de diferentes modos.
Palabras clave: política pública, gentrificación,
artista, nueva economía, Barcelona

casellas_a._dot_e._pallares_m._2008._est.pdf
Pallares-Barbera, M., et al., 2008. Geografia regional, Barcelona: Universitat Oberta de Catalunya. introduccio.pdf m5_criteris_de_regionalitzacio_a_escala_mundial.pdf
2007
Suau-Sanchez, P. & Pallares-Barbera, M., 2007. Overcoming airport capacity environmental tensions at Barcelona's airport and future airport development strategies. In First Airneth Annual Conference Airneth/G.A.R.S research workshop “Optimal Use of Scarce Airport Capacity”. The Hague. The Hague: www.airneth.com. Publisher's VersionAbstract

The current European airport framework presents socio-environmental and territorial conflicts that are difficult to resolve. There is a need for the development of airport infrastructure; but such development can damage the environment and the interests of nearby inhabitants. The technical features of airport infrastructures are not the only elements relevant to increasing air-traffic volume. Enlarging airport capacity will also depend, in the short term, on management of the environmental impact on surrounding areas. This paper deals with the decision-making process involved in airport-planning based on the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) model in Catalonia’s airports. The main objective of this paper is to analyze the particular socio-environmental conflict that has taken place in the Municipalities of Gavà and Castelldefels since of the new third runway and the new South Terminal (still under construction) came into operation at Barcelona Airport. Objection to the acoustic pollution caused by aircraft landing and taking off on the third runway forced the airport authority to limit the capacity of the airport. This conflict has been partially resolved through certain work within the airport platform and through important changes to the Traffic Management Advisor. This conflict re-opened the debate concerning the suitability of a planned fourth runway, to be located over the sea, which would not only provide greater airport capacity but would also avoid noise disruption. While this option seems preferable to the political and entrepreneurial groups, others believe it would be more reasonable to solve the issue of airport capacity by extending the two secondary airports in Catalonia. Keywords: Socio-environmental conflicts, airport capacity, Strategic Environmental Assessment, Barcelona Airport, Catalan Airport System, airport development.

airport_capacity_suau_pallares_2007.pdf
Pallares-Barbera, M., et al., 2007. ACTIVIDADES ECONÓMICAS Y NATURBANIZACIÓN EN EL ENTORNO DE LOS PARQUES NATURALES DEL “CADÍ– MOIXERÓ” Y DEL “ALT PIRINEU” (PIRINEO CATALÁN). In Espacios Naturales protegidos / Les espaces naturels protégés. Baeza (Seville). Baeza (Seville): Asociación de Geógrafos Españoles, pp. 543.Abstract

Resumee

La diversité des approches adoptées pour étudier les espaces naturels

protégés a enrichi nos connaissances sur ces espaces, caractérisés avant

tout par leur exceptionnelle singularité et par la qualité des éléments qui les

composent; par la valeur aussi de leurs paysages si intimement liés à la société

qui les occupent, les organisent et les utilisent.

La crise et le lent déclin de l’agriculture ainsi que des sociétés rurales

traditionnelles qui l’entretenaient sont responsables d’une déprise parfois généralisée

qui a progressivement créé une nouvelle image de ces territoires et leur ont

donné un nouveau statut: de leur rôle essentiellement agricole il sont passés à

des fonctions et des utilisations plus “écologiques” fondés sur la mise en valeur

de leur patrimoine naturel et culturel; ainsi s’est produit un rapprochement étroit et

une confusion progressive entre les territoires ruraux, les espaces périphériques ou

marginaux et les espaces naturels. Les orientations structurelles et sectorielles de

l’Union Européenne ont contribué aussi à la récupération de ces territoires comme

“espaces naturels” nécessitant un régime de protection, de nouvelles conceptions

d’aménagement et une réglementation de leur utilisation. Ces directives se sont

concrétisées dans un ensemble de comportements tendant, d’une façon générale,

à l’émergence d’un nouveau mode plus extensif d’utilisation du territoire et à

l’attribution de nouvelles missions à ces espaces. La Politique Agricole Commune

(PAC) a joué un rôle décisif dans cette réorientation vers de nouvelles fonctions

territoriales: gel de terres, adoption d’une extensivité générale, reboisement, jouissance

de la nature et “consommation d’espace”, etc. Conjointement, la politique de

cohésion territoriale, avec ses fonds structurels associés, et l’élaboration progressive

d’une politique de l’environnement de l’Union Européenne, ont progressivement

introduit de nouvelles règles devant favoriser un développement plus équilibré, le

“développement durable”, transformant ainsi les espaces naturels protégés en facteurs

favorables à un nouvelle dynamique des territoires.

Resumen

En las áreas de montaña de muchos países en Europa

encontramos la misma paradoja: muchas áreas rurales de

montaña se están despoblando rápidamente mientras en áreas

cercanas es cada vez más escaso el espacio disponible, debido

a un fuerte desarrollo de las actividades de ocio y las segundas

residencias (Tulla, A.F. y Pallarès, M., 2003c). Esta es también la

situación en la mayor parte del Pirineo Catalán. En nuestro grupo

de investigación (SEJ2006-04009 “El desarrollo local sostenible

en zonas de montaña en el umbral entre el abandono del territorio

y la naturbanización”), nos planteamos analizar las posibles

soluciones a “la paradoja de la montaña europea” analizando,

primero, el proceso de naturbanización; segundo, los efectos

del despoblamiento; y, tercero, las actuaciones que permitan un

desarrollo local sostenible. En relación al despoblamiento, hay dos

líneas de trabajo básicas. Por un lado, el estudio del medio natural

antropizado y su evolución como consecuencia del abandono

humano del territorio, y por otro lado, la implantación de espacios

naturales protegidos (ENP) con las implicaciones que conlleva

su modelo de gestión y, muy especialmente en los municipios

del entorno de estos ENP. En el objetivo de la naturbanización

debemos analizar, tanto la atracción que ejercen los ENP para su

existencia, así como los efectos, en la estructura natural y social,

que genera en un territorio de montaña, frecuentemente muy

frágil. Finalmente, en el objetivo del desarrollo local sostenible,

nos planteamos que actividades económicas, en base a las

teorías de la “incrustación territorial” y de la “ventaja comparativa”,

juntamente con el Planeamiento Territorial pueden ayudar a una

diversifi cación de las actividades económicas y de la población en

el territorio, así como al mejor nivel de vida de esta, paliando en lo

posible tanto los desequilibrios generados por el despoblamiento

como por la naturbanización.

enp_2008_iii_col_hispfrances_p_93-118_tulla_pallares_badia_vera.pdf
Creative clusters in Urban Settings: 22@BCN and Shoredicht East London. (Clústers creatius en entorns urbans: 22@Bcn i Shoreditch East London)
Pallares-Barbera, M., Leonard, S. & et al., 2007. Creative clusters in Urban Settings: 22@BCN and Shoredicht East London. (Clústers creatius en entorns urbans: 22@Bcn i Shoreditch East London), Barcelona: AGAUR. Generalitat de Catalunya.Abstract

 

Creative clusters in Urban Settings: 22@BCN and Shoredicht East London

ABSTRACT

Although the distance variable is not as important as in the past, the location of companies of new economy in urban zones areas continues to be a fact. Location factors such as infrastructures, close to demand, and face to face transactions first quarter of the twenty-first century ties the creative economy to cities in a similar way as factories located at the beginning of twentieth century. The city played an outstanding role in the development of "the new industrial economy" at the beginning of twentieth century, and it does so in the "the new creative economy" with the label of city of the knowledge. The morphological, social, economic and urban results are very different in each period; both phenomena impact the cities remarkably well. The goal of this research study is to analyze the mechanisms of agglomeration and clustering mechanisms in the creation of knowledge, advanced services, competitive activities at the top of the leading-edge developments in the cities of the twenty-one century. In Barcelona, the project 22@BCN, and in East London, the Shoreditch projects are compared. The effort that local authorities have put on creating the appropriate environment to attract and to create innovative companies, as engines for development at some European cities, has resulted in the emergence of very dynamic urban centers that are prepared and accommodate nodes of knowledge creation ("Urban Knowledge Hubs"), which represent a pool of high qualified jobs. This is the case of the projects of Barcelona (22@bcn) and East London (Shoreditch).

Key words. Knowledge Economy, Clustering, Leading Cities.

 

memoria_justificativa_2006pbr10014.pdf annex4_entrevistes_al_22bcn.pdf
Pallares-Barbera, M., Tulla, A.F. & et al, 2007. THE RURAL WORLD IN THE 21ST CENTURY: A COMPROMISE BETWEEN RURAL CULTURE, COMMUNICATIONS INFRASTRUCTURES, NEW TECHNOLOGY AND LOCAL INITIATIVE. Summary, Barcelona: Abertis Foundation. rural_world_xxi_century_2007.pdf mon_rural_abertis_2007.pdf mundo_rural_abertis_2007.pdf
Dot, E., Pallares-Barbera, M. & Vera Martín, A., 2007. The leadership of urban spaces: The 22@BCN Project (El 22@Barcelona o el liderazgo del espacio urbano. La economía del conocimiento en la Barcelona del siglo XXI). XX Congreso AGE La geografía en la frontera de los conocimientos , pp. 1-12.Abstract Leadership_Urban_Space_Barcelona_2007.pdf
Pallares-Barbera, M., 2007. The rise of the Spanish multinationals. European business in the global economy. Mauro F. Guillén, Worcester, MA, 02138.
Suau-Sanchez, P. & Pallares-Barbera, M., 2007. Airport planning and environmental strategies in Catalonia (Planificación aeroportuaria y estrategias ambientales en Catalunya). Boletín de la Asociación de Geógrafos Españoles , 45 , pp. 395-401, 99-121. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Recent social movements have alerted public opinion and political administrations to the safety of the areas surrounding airports and the negative externalities produced by airport developments. From the economic geography perspective this is not a new issue, but due to the increasing importance of enlargements in airport capacity this has become a hot topic for policy makers and academics. Responsible airport development planning would avoid social conflicts and negative externalities in surrounding territories. Traditionally, the planning of airport developments has only focused on elements inside the airport; such as supply and demand forecasts and other aeronautical, engineering and economic variables. But the current airport framework presents new situations that cannot be solved by traditional methods since new and external variables are intrinsic to the decision-making process (Graham and Guyer, 1999). This paper deals with these new variables; in the sense of discussing how the trade-off between enlarging infrastructure and minimizing externalities are important elements in the decision making process regarding difficult-to-resolve incompatible land uses.
airport_planning_b_age_2007.pdf
2006
Badia, A., Pallares-Barbera, M. & Llurdés, J.C., 2006. The use of new technology in teaching geography in the EHEA. The subjects of Social and Economic Geography, Cartography and Photointerpretation, and GIS. http://digithum.uoc.edu/ojs/index.php/digithum/article/view/526. WebsiteAbstract

Over the last five years, the Autonomous University of Barcelona's Geography Department studies have undergone a series of structural changes. Adaptation to an online system has led to a structural change in the way in which knowledge is disseminated and materials produced, and the application of the so-called Bologna Process (adaptation to the European Higher Education Area, EHEA) has brought with it the need to change certain habits in the way knowledge is disseminated, a new credit transfer system (ECTS) and skills-based training. The Department has taken part in a pilot test project initiated by the Autonomous University of Barcelona (UAB). In this period of change, we are simultaneously offering three teaching systems: the traditional system, in line with the study plan from 2002; the Bologna Process system, started in 2005-2006, and the online system, which was started in the academic year 2001-2002 and which does not form part of the Bologna Process. Two or three years from now, there will be two systems, face-to-face and online, both of which are to be adapted to the Bologna Process. This article looks to show what these changes have meant, in terms of the experience in subjects we teach (Cartography and Photo-interpretation, Social and Economic Geography and Geographic Information Systems), which provides the basis for a discussion of the pros and cons of adaptation of Geogr@phy On-line and to the Bologna Process.

badia_pallares_llurdes_english.pdf
Spatial distribution of ignitions in Mediterranean periurban and rural areas: The case of Catalonia
Badia Perpinyà, A. & Pallares-Barbera, M., 2006. Spatial distribution of ignitions in Mediterranean periurban and rural areas: The case of Catalonia. International Journal of Wildland Fire , 15 , pp. 187-196.
Tulla, A.F., et al., 2006. THE TWIN CITY MODEL IN THE PYRENEES TERRITORY: ANDORRA AND ALT URGELL BORDER REGION. In Sixth European Urban and Regional Studies Conference. Comwell Hotel, Roskilde, Denmark. Comwell Hotel, Roskilde, Denmark: EURS. Governance, territoriality and network policies or Diverse economies in Europe.Abstract

Citation:
Tulla, A. F.; Pallares-Blanch, M.; Pallares-Barbera, M.; Vera, A. (2006). THE TWIN CITY MODEL IN THE PYRENEES TERRITORY: ANDORRA AND ALT URGELL BORDER REGION. Sixth European Urban and Regional Studies Conference. Governance, territoriality and network policies on Diverse economies in Europe. 21-24 September; Comwell Hotel, Roskilde, Denmark.

The new Europe of 25 countries still has different boundary spots inside like Switzerland with special agreements. One of these cases is the Principat d’Andorra in the Pyrenees, between France and Spain. Since the 1960’s decade this mountainous country of 465 sq. km has grown from 6,000 to more than 70,000 inhabitants in 2005 taking advantage of commercial and financial opportunities in relation to French and Spanish states but also to the European Union laws.
At the beginning of the 21rst century different policies from the government of Andorra have tried to diversify economic activities, to bring under control urban growth and developing territorial links with Alt Urgell a Catalan county of 22,000 inhabitants close to the southern boundary. There are human, goods, services and capital movements in both directions and public and private transport is very important. Because of that is possible to say that a twin city system is in process to be implemented. Our research group has completed a study which has elaborated primary data results on different type of relations in this city system.
The first wave of migration into Andorra was from Catalonia after the Spanish Civil War and from Alt Urgell and surroundings (1960-80) promoting important links between families. Many of them now have Andorran nationality. After the 1980 was there an important Spanish and Portuguese migration with an actual population of Andorrans 38%, Catalans 22%, Spaniards 17%, Portuguese 10%, French 6% and others 7%. The official language is Catalan and the currency is the euro. The number of visitors in Andorra was more than 13 million people in 2005 with important winter resorts. The Government of Andorra, recently, has taken the important decision to strengthen relations with the European Union, adapting several laws, even with a risk of reducing financial and commercial advantages.
In this paper we explain a model of reciprocal networks to be set up between economies and citizens of both, Andorra and Alt Urgell, territories. Mainly, there are flows in both directions, in relation to labour force mobility, goods and services purchase and direct economic investment. There are also plans to increase efficient transport networks and to make agreements related to environmental management. Andorra has more population and economic and financial initiatives whereas Alt Urgell has more urban and agrarian land available but also cultural and specific retail trade to give satisfaction to the whole population of twin city system. On top of that, the special governance of Andorra gives an important role to Alt Urgell. The Bishop of Urgell is at the same time the co-Princep of Andorra, together with the French President, and the seat of both religious and political positions are in the Seu d’Urgell.

twincitymodel_2006.pdf
Pallares-Barbera, M., Vera, A. & Tulla, A.F., 2006. New economy in traditional industrial urban spaces. The 22@Barcelona (LA NUEVA ECONOMÍA Y LOS ESPACIOS INDUSTRIALES TRADICIONALES: EL CASO DEL 22@ BARCELONA). II Jornadas de Geografía Económica. Industria y Ciudad: Geografía de una relación renovada , pp. 1-11.Abstract

Reference: Vera, A.; Pallares-Barbera, M.; Tulla, A.F. (2006). La Nueva Economía y los espacios industriales tradicionales: El caso del 22@Barcelona. En Alonso Santos, J.A.; Aparicio Amador, L.J.; Sanchez Fernandez, J.L. [Eds.]. Industria y Ciudad. Geografía de una relación renovada. Salamanca: II Jornadas de Geografía Económica: 1-11.

Las tecnologías de la innovación y la comunicación han cambiado la estructura productiva de los negocios al mismo tiempo que la morfología urbana. La nueva economía ha configurado un nuevo modelo de localización industrial, generando en las ciudades un espacio propicio para el desarrollo y creación de empresas innovadoras. En el interior de los nuevos espacios urbanos industriales es posible acoger redes de empresas basadas en las nuevas tecnologías, como universidades o centros de innovación y desarrollo dando lugar a un claro ejemplo de nueva economía basada en la economía del conocimiento. El Barrio Barcelonés del Poblenou ha sido testimonio de dichas transformaciones, pasando de un espacio industrial tradicional a un nuevo espacio destinado al nuevo sistema económico. La finalidad de este artículo es presentar éstos cambios a través del proyecto del 22@ Barcelona.

vera-pallares-tulla_2006.pdf

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