Publications

2006
Pallares-Barbera, M., 2006. Creating urban knowledge-activity hubs in Barcelona (Spain): A history of success?. In 102th Annual Meeting of Association of American Geographers. Chicago IL. Chicago IL: AAG.
Tulla, A., et al., 2006. The twin city model in the Pyrenees territory: Andorra and Alt Urgell border regions. In Sixth European Urban and Regional Studies Conference. Roskilde, Denmark. Roskilde, Denmark: Governance, territoriality and network policies or Diverse economies in Europe, pp. 1-13. twincitymodel.pdf
2005
Casellas, A. & Pallares-Barbera, M., 2005. Social capital as an analytical structure for studying gender and space (Capital social como estructura de análisis. Validaciones en perspectivas de género y territorio). Cuadernos de Geografía , 78 , pp. 177 - 190. Publisher's VersionAbstract
This article examines the analytical categories of the concept of social capital from a gender perspective. How social capital is produced and distributed, and who are its beneficiaries are the subject of an ongoing debate amongst different disciplines. In geography, social capital can be described as a basic tool for interpretation, especially when studying the jobs of women in rural mountainous areas. This article analyses the contributions by four of the most important theoreticians of the concept: Pierre Bourdieu, James Coleman, Robert Putnam and Nan Lin, with the purpose of undertaking a re-interpretation of social capital that helps to open up a debate on how to identify and analyse the contributions made by women in the realm of social capital. KEY WORDS: Social capital, women’s jobs, rural areas, network analysis.
cg78_177_190.pdf
Pallares-Barbera, M., 2005. Optimum location in the Cerdà's Plan. The p-median model in the L1 orthogonal network of Barcelona's Expansion (La percepció d’optimalitat en el Pla Cerdà. El model p-median en el disseny ortogonal L1 de l’eixample de Barcelona). Treballs de la Societat Catalana de Geografia , 60 , pp. 223-253. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Many of the present days ‘modern cities were transformed from their medieval past based on blueprints laid out by visionary city planners. These city planners resorted to methods of calculation prevailing in their day and age. This was probably combined with instinct and intuition that identified the talented city planner from the rest. Ildefonso Cerdà was one of such planner and the advent of the city structure of modern Barcelona must be attributed to his plan. Although Barcelona today is not entirely as Cerdà had visualized it, it is important to note that it is the result of changes imposed subsequently on the original Cerdà Plan. In order to chart out a course for future city planning in Barcelona it is essential to understand the original plan in the context of the objectives and analytical tools currently in vogue. Several programming techniques have been developed to resolve problems posed by various constraints to desirable objectives. Hence, various programming models have been applied to the problem of suitable locating facilities, like schools, subject to criteria that define the user’s convenience. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate how the p-Median Model can be used to test the optimality of the distribution of schools in Barcelona as proposed by Cerdà. The purpose here is to show different methodologies for making such comparisons. A meaningful optimality check would ordinarily require using the whole plan. However, a small sample of nodes has been considered for the limited purpose of showing the application of techniques. Key words: optimality, urban planning, urban facilities, p-median model.
opt_cerda_2005.pdf
2004
Pallares-Barbera, M., Tulla, A.F. & Vera, A., 2004. Spatial loyalty and territorial embeddedness in the multi-sector clustering of the Berguedà region in Catalonia (Spain). Geoforum , 35 (5) , pp. 635-649.Abstract
The development of clusters of local growth is supported by different processes. Endogenous economic development produced by small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) is based on family firms in which local market characteristics influence the sectorial diversification that emerges within certain regions. In the Berguedà region (Catalonia, Spain), the formation of a successful network of SMEs in three main sectors (food, textile and machinery) in the 1990s demonstrated the importance of grass-roots prerequisites, including industrial tradition, social networks and a sense of spatial loyalty, one of the main concepts studied in this paper. The aim of this paper is to study how institutions, local economic networks and collective social agents generate a propitious economic space that constitutes favourable embedding in Berguedà. However, the key element in this industrial system is the loyalty that entrepreneurs and workers feel towards their industrial region. These two processes, territorial embeddedness and spatial loyalty, appear to be two of the major forces behind the economic dynamism of the region and have led to the formation of a new cluster of firms. Author Keywords: Spatial loyalty; Local development; Territorial embeddedness; Multi-sector clustering; Identity
Innovation, networks and flows in the study of the territory (Innovación, redes y flujos en el estudio del territorio)
Pallares-Barbera, M., 2004. Innovation, networks and flows in the study of the territory (Innovación, redes y flujos en el estudio del territorio). Treballs de la Societat Catalana de Geografia , 57 , pp. 159-180.Abstract

While space might shrink, the flows of goods in space gets constantly wider. Great inventions in history have marked the reorganization of space as well as some activities, some spatial relations and the value of territory. Space has been adapting to these needs offering new opportunities and challenges. Geography has become the leading science to analyze and mediate in these processes. The space of markets, the relations between the digital world and the real world, “geolocalization” of services and new economic activities have moved geography to a new level within social sciences. This round table starts from the following standpoint: How do the extreme speed of flows affects the meaning and perception that in different social and cultural settings people have? Keywords: innovation, flows, networks.

redes_y_flujos.pdf
Areas Taxonomy using GIS and Socioeconomic variables factor analysis (Taxonomías de áreas en el Pirineo Catalán: Aproximación metodológica al análisis de variables socioterritoriales)
Pallares-Barbera, M., et al., 2004. Areas Taxonomy using GIS and Socioeconomic variables factor analysis (Taxonomías de áreas en el Pirineo Catalán: Aproximación metodológica al análisis de variables socioterritoriales). GeoFocus , 4 , pp. 209-245. Publisher's VersionAbstract

This article proposes a methodology based on geographical information systems and factor-analysis to carry out taxonomies for mountain areas in the Catalan Pyrenees. Initially, socio-economic and spatial variables have been used in the classification of the areas. Subsequently, the discrimination of homogeneous areas becomes important in order to undertake posterior studies about their development and to facilitate the creation of specific public policies adjusted to their main competitive advantages. The confrontation of such extreme and rival neighbouring uses in small Pyrenean regions -such as natural parks and productive activities- with externalities arising and affecting each others’ activities, requires governmental instruments to intervene in order to achieve a more efficient allocation of resources in the face of externalities, to decrease production where there is external cost and to increase it where there are external benefits. Necessarily, these policies would have to be related to urban planning and to take into account economic and social aspects. Keywords: local development, GIS, multivariate analysis, rural mountainous areas, natural protected areas.

articulo10_2004geofocus.pdf
Pallares-Barbera, M., 2004. Location determinants of Barcelona's hinterland at the beguinning of the twenty one century (Estructura productiva i potencials de localització de l’àrea d’influència de Barcelona al tomb dels segle XXI). Revista de Geografia , 3 , pp. 63-92. Publisher's Version Barcelona_Locat_Factors.pdf
2003
Vera, A., Badia, A. & Pallares-Barbera, M., 2003. The adoption of the Internet in the semi-remote districts of industrial tradition in Catalonia and the perception of the new economy (La adopción de Internet en la red de empresas y la percepción de la nueva economía en comarcas semi-remotas de tradici. Boletín de la Asociación de Geógrafos Españoles , 36 , pp. 129-147. internet_montana_2003.pdf
Tulla, A., et al., 2003. The transformation of agrarian space in mountain areas of Catalonia (La transformació del model agrari en àrees de muntanya). Espais , 49 (Spring) , pp. 82-97. Publisher's Version transf_agrarian_space.pdf
Local development, socioeconomic and natural externalities in mountain areas. ISBN: 80-86377-09-1
Tulla, A., Vera, A. & Pallares-Barbera, M., 2003. Local development, socioeconomic and natural externalities in mountain areas. ISBN: 80-86377-09-1. In Regional Geography and its applications. Brno (Txeck Republic). Brno (Txeck Republic): Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic. Institute of Geonics, pp. 178-185.Abstract
In the mountainous areas of Europe, local development can be explained by the existence of comparative advantages with regard to the more heavily populated areas. When applied to the Catalan Pyrenees, the revision of the theory of comparative advantage within the framework of the centre-periphery model and the use of the territorial embeddedness theory of economic activities enables us to demonstrate that in the future, short term analysis will have to be replaced by long term analysis that also considers environmental, social and cultural externalities.
2003regional_geography_and_its_aplications.pdf
Pallares-Barbera, M., Tulla, A. & Pallares, M., 2003. Social Capital and women's work in the Pyrennees (Capital social i treball de les dones als Pirineus. El cas de l’Alt Urgell), Barcelona: Catalonia Women's Institute (Institut Català de les Dones). Website capital_social_i_treball_de_les_dones_als_pirineus_el_cas_de_lalt_urgell.pdf
Pallares-Barbera, M., 2003. Economic geography and industrial location (Geografia econòmica i localització industrial). Documents d'Anàlisi Geogràfica , 42 , pp. 171-182. Publisher's VersionAbstract
In human geography, the theory of localisation and, specifically, that of industrial localisation has been one of the most broadly covered issues over time, and is closely related to other disciplines. This article outlines the various contributions made in industrial localisation, from Weberian analysis up to the network economy, without forgoing a consideration of mass-production or Just-in-Time systems. Methodologically, the analysis of industrial localisation is framed within the structure of globalisation/regionalisation in which the economic activity of the 20th and 21st Centuries takes place. It also focuses on the impact on the productive system caused by innovation in areas such as technology, communication, infrastructures and business organisation, and how this has been reflected in industrial space. Key words: localisation theory, economic geography, industrial localisation.
Ec_Geog_Ind_Location.pdf
Vera, A., Badia, A. & Pallares-Barbera, M., 2003. Firm network and Internet in the mountain rural areas of Catalonia (Spain) (La adopción de Internet en la red de empresas y la percepción de la nueva economía en comarcas semi-remotas de tradición industrial de Catalunya). Boletín de la Asociación de Geógrafos Españoles , 36 , pp. 129-147. Publisher's VersionAbstract
The decreasing impact of distance in the exchange of information has changed the way in which business are done. Mountain areas close to metropolitan spaces have received new firms and the old business network adjusted to these new technologies in their everyday operations. Competitive advantages have reshaped regions and they generated new locational model. The objective of this article is to study the process of business location in Catalonia's mountain areas (Spain) taking into account Internet and new technologies. Keywords: ICT, rural areas, industrial location, economic geography.
internet_montana_2003.pdf
2002
Pallares-Barbera, M., et al., 2002. Area taxonomy in the Pyrenees (Taxonomía de áreas en el Pirineo catalán: aproximación metodológica al análisis de variables socio-territoriales). In MÉTODOS CUANTITATIVOS, SISTEMAS DE INFORMACIÓN GEOGRÁFICA Y TELEDETECCIÓN. CIENCIA Y TECNOLOGÍA DE LA INFORMACIÓN GEOGRÁFICA EN UN MUNDO GLOBALIZADO. Valladolid, Spain. Valladolid, Spain: AGE Grupo Tecnologías de la Información Geográfica.Abstract taxonomia_pirineo_catalan.pdf
Pallares-Barbera, M., 2002. Enterprise embeddedness and Industrial Innovation in Spain: An Overview. In Embedded enterprise and social capital: international perspectives. Aldershot UK. Aldershot UK: Ashgate, pp. Ashgate: 113-126. WebsiteAbstract

The concept of “embeddedness” refers to the social construction of inter-firm relationships and the enmeshing of economic relationships within broader social structures and relationships in particular places. Previous research has suggested “embedding” is the best way to generate local growth and social capital and has focused on SMEs in Europe and North America, although the existing model is being more widely adopted now. This volume is the first to examine the complex processes of “embedding” in this wider context. Bringing together a broad range of case studies from the developed and developing world which address the nature of embeddedness from various perspectives, it not only questions the universality of the current model and the policy initiatives it has spawned but also provides a much wider understanding of “embeddedness”. It does so by discussing the social dimensions more fully and
by throwing light on the spatial and temporal ambiguity of the concept and its inadequate treatment of power.

Contents
Approaching embeddedness, Michael Taylor and Simon Leonard; Embeddedness and innovation, Ron Boschma, Jan Lambooy and Veronique Schutjens; Rethinking institutions and embeddedness in a third world context, Giles Mohan; Supply chains, embeddedness and the restructuring of Argentina’s tanning industry, Kjersti Wølneberg; Going places? Reflections on embedding and disembedding in agriculture and horticulture under neoliberalism: the example of Hawke’s Bay, New Zealand, David Hayward, Christina Stringer and Richard Le Heron; Weakening ties: the embeddedness of small UK electronics firms, Sara Openshaw and Michael Taylor;
Enterprise embeddedness and industrial innovation in Spain: an overview, Montserrat Pallares-Barbera; Local embeddedness in global financial services: Australian evidence in ‘the end of geography’, Pierre Agnes; Local embeddedness and service firms: evidence from Southern England, Paul Search
and Michael Taylor; Embedded project-production in magazine publishing: a case of self-exploitation?, Carol Ekinsmyth; Local embeddedness, ‘institutional thickness’ and the state regulation of local labour markets, Simon Leonard; Diasporic embeddedness and Asian women entrepreneurs in the UK, Irene Hardill, Parvati Raghuram and Adam Strange; Over- and Under-embeddedness: failures in developing mixed embeddedness among Israeli entrepreneurs, Michael Sofer and Izhak Schnell; Enterprise, embeddedness and exclusion: business relationships in a small island developing economy, Michael Taylor; The local embeddedness of firms in Turkish industrial districts: the changing roles of networks in local development, Ayda Eraydin; Understanding embeddedness, Michael Taylor and Simon Leonard.

embeddedness.pdf embedded_cover_credits.pdf
Pallares-Barbera, M., Minguillón Alfonso, J. & Lloret, T., 2002. Towards a web based system for teaching quantitative geography models. International Conference on Information and Communication Technologies in Education (ICTE 2002) ICTE_Badajoz_2002 , pp. 1035-1039. Publisher's Version
Badia i Perpinyà, A., Pallares-Barbera, M. & Piñol, J., 2002. Fires in peripherical urban areas and fires in rural areas. A case study of the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona and the county of Bages (Incendis periurbans front a incendis rurals. Els casos de l’Àrea Metropolitana de Barcelona i la comarca del Bages). Documents d'Anàlisi Geogràfica , 41 , pp. 17-42. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Forest fires require specific response depending on the physical features of the terrain and its social use. This paper shows two areas which, have completely different ignitor characteristics despite their spatial proximity. These are the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona, which is completely urban, and the county of Bages, much more rural. These differences have been observed from the collection and analysis of the data of the fires that took place in these two areas between 1987 and 1998. The data show a different distribution of fire outbreaks in more dense urban areas and in more spread out rural areas, where fires are more difficult to detect. This fact explains why a larger area was burnt in Bages during the lapse of time studied. It is important, thus, that the policies to be applied are customized with specific and differentiate characteristics for every case. Key words: forest fires, ignition, propagation, Geographical Information Systems, continuity of vegetation mass.
Fires_Periphery_Urban_Areas.pdf
2001
Pallares-Barbera, M. & Vera, A., 2001. Economic spaces and industrial innovative milieus in the region of Berguedà (Spain) (Espais econòmics i milieus innovatius industrials a la comarca del Berguedà). Documents d’Anàlisi Geogràfica , 38 , pp. 33-53. Publisher's VersionAbstract
The main objective of this paper is to study comparative advantages of the Berguedà region (Catalonia) for the industrial network of small and medium enterprises, based on three elements: territory, economic and social. Results are placed on the basis of the performance of three main actors: small and medium enterprises, institutions and territory. Three endogenous development models are used to analyse competitive strategies of economic development in the region: industrial district, innovative milieu and industrial embeddedness. Key words: Berguedà, industrial district, innovative milieu, industrial embeddedness, endogenous development model.
Ec_spaces_milieus.pdf
2000
Pallares-Barbera, M., et al., 2000. Industrial embeddedness and innovative milieu in the Berguedà County (Spain). (Incrustación industrial y medio innovador en la comarca del Berguedà). In Innovación, pequeña empresa y desarrollo local en España. Madrid. Madrid: Civitas, pp. 195-210.Abstract
Durante los noventa se han registrado procesos de desarrollo económico local que han respondido a factores de diversos tipos. Muchos de estos han sobrepasado lo que estrictamente pueda explicarse como factor económico, para enmarcarse en lo que se llaman factores enraizados en redes sociales y culturales de un espacio determinado. El objetivo de este capítulo es el estudio del comportamiento de la actividad industrial en la comarca del Berguedà, en Catalunya, basándose en las interrelaciones que se establecen entre la actividad económica y el territorio. Enfatizando el papel constituyente de los vínculos entre empresa y colectivo social y cultural del propio territorio, como factor principal para el desarrollo local y base del resurgimiento de la actividad económica e innovadora en la región. Las características intrínsecas del Berguedà como comarca con larga tradición industrial, pero alejada de las áreas consideradas más idóneas para la localización industrial, aportan interés específico para el análisis de su desarrollo económico. No debe obviarse la particularidad de que el Berguedà constituye parte integrante del grupo de comarcas de montaña de Catalunya, y de que fue uno de los territorios donde empezó la revolución industrial en España. Por tanto, por una parte, la tradición industrial juega un papel esencial en cada estadio de su desarrollo, hasta cierto punto se puede afirmar que puede ser la semilla de posteriores revitalizaciones de la región. Que, por otra parte, está en continua dialéctica con el bajo nivel de economías de urbanización, carencia histórica de la zona. Hace falta añadir que esta comarca sufrió unos altos niveles de desindustrialización durante los ochenta, que hizo necesaria la intervención de políticas institucionales encaminadas a paliar los crecientes niveles de desestructuración económica y desempleo. En este marco, el estudio de su restauración industrial parece interesante para revelar los aspectos interiores del mecanismo revitalizador e innovador. Conocimiento necesario para el éxito o fracaso de su futuro desarrollo regional.
articulo_civitas.pdf civitas_2000.pdf

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