Purpose: Transgender and nonbinary people have an increased burden of psychiatric problems compared with the general population. Data are needed to understand factors associated with psychiatric diagnoses, acuity in terms of suicide attempts and level-of-care escalation, and outpatient engagement among transgender and nonbinary adults.
Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of records from 201 transgender and nonbinary adults who presented for primary care at a health center. Regression models were fit to examine factors associated with psychiatric diagnoses, substance use disorders (SUDs), acuity, and outpatient behavioral health engagement.
Results: Male sex assignment at birth was associated with decreased odds of a psychiatric diagnosis (odds ratio [OR] 0.40, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.20–0.81). Increased odds of SUDs were associated with later hormone initiation (OR 1.04, 95% CI: 1.01–1.08) and suicide attempt (OR 5.79, 95% CI: 2.08–16.15). Increased odds of higher acuity were associated with alcohol use disorder (OR 31.54, 95% CI: 5.73–173.51), post-traumatic stress disorder (OR 18.14, 95% CI: 2.62–125.71), major depressive disorder (MDD) (OR 6.62, 95% CI: 1.72–25.44), and absence of psychiatrist integration into primary medical care (OR 4.52, 95% CI: 1.26–16.22). Increased odds of outpatient behavioral health engagement were associated with case management utilization (OR 10.73, 95% CI: 1.32–87.53), anxiety disorders (OR 15.84, 95% CI: 2.00–125.72), and MDD (OR 10.45, 95% CI: 2.28–47.98).
Conclusion: Psychiatric disorders were highly prevalent among transgender and nonbinary adult patients. Novel findings include associations of lack of psychiatrist integration into primary care with acuity and of case management utilization with outpatient behavioral health engagement.