A sulfonamide-resistant mutant of pneumococcus, sulr-c, displays a genetic instability, regularly segregating to wild type. DNA extracts of derivatives of the strain possess transforming activities for both the mutant and wild-type alleles, establishing that the strain is a partial diploid. The linkage of sulr-c to strr-61, a stable chromosomal marker, was established, thus defining a chromosomal locus for sulr-c. DNA isolated from sulr-c cells transforms two mutant recipient strains at the same low efficiency as it does a wild-type recipient, although the mutant property of these strains makes them capable of integrating classical "low-efficiency" donor markers equally as efficiently as "high efficiency" markers. Hence sulr-c must have a different basis for its low efficiency than do classical low efficiency point mutations. We suggest that the DNA in the region of the sulr-c mutation has a structural abnormality which leads both to its frequent segregation during growth and its difficulty in efficiently mediating genetic transformation.
Coronary vascular and myocardial responses to selective hypoxic and/or hypercapnic carotid chemoreceptor stimulation were investigated in constantly ventilated, pentobarbital or urethan-chloralose anesthetized dogs. Bilaterally isolated carotid chemoreceptors were perfused with autologous blood of varying O2 and CO2 tensions via an extracorporeal lung circuit. Systemic gas tensions were unchanged. Effects of carotid chemoreceptor stimulation on coronary vascular resistance, left ventricular dP/dt, and strain-gauge arch output were studied at natural coronary blood flow with the chest closed and during constant-flow perfusion of the left common coronary artery with the chest open. Carotid chemoreceptor stimulation slightly increased left ventricular dP/dt and slightly decreased the strain-gauge arch output, while markedly increasing systemic pressure. Coronary blood flow increased; however, coronary vascular resistance wa.as not affected. These studies show that local carotid body stimulation increases coronary blood flow but has little effect on the myocardium. The increase in coronary blood flow results mainly from an increase in systemic arterial pressure. Thus these data provide little evidence for increased sympathetic activity of the heart during local stimulation of the carotid chemoreceptors with hypoxic and hypercapnic blood.
Effects of sodium nitrate were compared with sodium chloride loading on transport of electrolytes by the nephron. Maximal levels of free water clearance/clomerular filtration rate (CH2O/GFR) averaged 8.4% with nitrate loading and 14.4% with saline loading. Since ethacrynic acid and chlorothiazide exert their major natriuretic effect in the distal nephron, the increment in Na ad Cl reabsorbed beyond the proximal tubule. The administration of these agents resulted in an increase in fractional sodium excretion (CNa/GFR) of 21.1%, urinary sodium excretion (UNaV) of 1,126 mueq/min, and urinary chloride excretion (UClV) of 848 mueq/min during nitrate loading compared with an increase in CNa/GFR of 37.6%, UNaV of 2,362 mueq/min, and UClV of 2,397 mueq/min during saline loading. The smaller diuretic-induced increment in Na and Cl excretion in the nitrate studies suggests, as do the hydrated studies, that less Cl and Na are reabsorbed in the distal nephron during nitrate than saline loading. At every level of UNaV, fractional bicarbonate reabsorption was higher, urine pH was lower, and urinary potassium excretion (UKV) was higher in the nitrate studies. Thus, compared with saline loading, sodium nitrate decreases chloride and sodium reabsorption in the distal nephron. The higher hydrogen and potassium secretion in the nitrate studies may be consequent to the decreased ability of the distal nephron to reabsorb chloride.
In 4 dogs injected intravenously (i.v.) with 125I labeled fibrinogen, 51Cr labeled platelets and 99mTc labeled albumin, and subjected to successively increasing amounts of i.v. infused monomethylmethacrylate, doses corresponding to the amounts released into the blood stream following implantation of acrylic cement during total hip replacements did not affect the clotting mechanism, did not cause trapping of platelets and fibrin in the lungs, did not generate fat emboli, and did not cause depression of the arterial oxygen tension or blood pressure. Monomethylmethacrylate in whole blood was associated with both blood cells and plasma.
1. In one experiment the effect on rumen pH of feeding with restricted amounts of whole or pelleted barley was studied. With whole barley there was little variation in rumen pH associated with feeding time, but with pelleted barley the pH decreased from about 7-0 before feeding to about 5-3, 2--3 h after feeding. 2. The rate of disappearance of dried grass during incubation in the rumens of sheep receiving either whole or pelleted barley was studied in a second experiment. After 24 h incubation only 423 mg/g incubated had disappeared in the rumen of sheep receiving pelleted barley while 625 mg/g incubated had disappeared when it was incubated in the rumen of sheep receiving whole barley. 3. The voluntary intake of dried grass of lambs was studied in a third experiment when they received supplements of either 25 or 50 g whole or pelleted barley/kg live weight 0-75. At the high level, pelleted barley reduced intake of dried grass by 534 g/kg but whole barley reduced it by only 352 g/kg. The digestibility of acid-detergent fibre was reduced more by pelleted barley than by whole barley but there was a tendency for a small increase in digestibility of the barley due to processing. 4. The implications of these findings on supplementation of roughages with cereals are discussed.