The existence of eukaryotic ribosomes with distinct ribosomal protein (RP) stoichiometry and regulatory roles in protein synthesis has been speculated for over 60 years. Recent advances in mass spectrometry (MS) and high-throughput analysis have begun to identify and characterize distinct ribosome stoichiometry in yeast and mammalian systems. In addition to RP stoichiometry, ribosomes host a vast array of protein modifications, effectively expanding the number of human RPs from 80 to many thousands of distinct proteoforms. Is it possible that these proteoforms combine to function as a ‘ribosome code’ to tune protein synthesis? We outline the specific benefits that translational regulation by specialized ribosomes can offer and discuss the means and methodologies available to correlate and characterize RP stoichiometry with function. We highlight previous research with a focus on formulating hypotheses that can guide future experiments and crack the ribosome code.
slavovLabThe French must have had very inebriated time all the time in the 1920s, with 184 liters of wine / person per year. That is probably 1-2 bottles of wine per adult per day ... every day, unless children actively helped with that alcohol feast!
@MaxCRoser, that's hard to imagine. t.co/WWsXN2cau0