# Affective Responses (anubhāvas) in an Apabhramsha Verse

In his Ten Forms (Daśarūpa), the tenth-century scholar Dhanañjaya takes the rather counterintuitive position that the "responses" (anubhāvas) of traditional aesthetic theory—typically the outward physical signs of an emotion, such as trembling, crying, and so on—belong to the reader or spectator, and not to the character who is represented (the anukārya). This position follows the revolution in aesthetic theory, as Sheldon Pollock has ...