The catastrophic consequences of ever-increasing rates of death from infectious diseases demands new experimental strategies for drug target selection and drug design. Over the last decade, the pharmaceutical industry has been wounded by several issues including failure of drug-development programmes, burgeoning cost of drug development, increasing regulatory control, lack of innovation and declining productivity of therapeutic drugs in the market.
Flow cytometry continue to evolve at a fast pace and provides neuroscientists the capability for performing many of highly-specialized assays simultaneously. Flow cytometry meet the demands of cutting edge research in neuroscience that has allowed researchers to isolate particular neural cells from heterogeneous population and catalog its molecular or physical features. With the development of greater throughput and sensitivity, flow cytometry has become the unique tools for characterizing surface or internal antigen expression of neural cells, rapid sorting of activated neurons, assessment of neurochemical components, understanding neural morphology and cell density changes during pathophysiology of neurological disorders. The continuous expansion of flow cytometric techniques to assess the intracellular changes within neural cells such as calcium influx, cellular reactive oxygens species generation and activation of apoptosis are moving this technology into the arena of studying brain disorders. All these approaches are expanding the utility of flow cytometry as a valuable tool for neurological examination to assess the impact of neurological damage towards developing novel therapeutics to treat neurological disorder.
Translating the power of high-throughput Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies from bench to clinic is the major center of interest for many health-care providers, clinicians and researchers. NGS technologies has been used increasingly to solve many of biological problems ranging from infectious diseases to the most common and rare genetic disorders. This massively parallel sequencing technologies are revolutionizing our current ability to characterize infectious diseases at genomics, transcriptomic and epigenetics levels. NGS technology can be used to describe microbiome in health and diseases states. It has allowed identification of virulence genes for pathogenicity, gained insights into genetic difference among related pathogens, enabled development of diagnosis tools for discrimination among specific strains, revealed mechanisms of host resistance, and also provided comprehensive understanding of host-microbe interactions in infectious disease progression. Thus, NGS technologies have expanded at an unprecedented pace that led to new opportunities for prediction of potential spread of infectious agents that would allow better prognoses, diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases. This article discusses the potential benefits and current challenges of using NGS in infectious disease diagnosis that would allow most appropriate and effective treatment of infectious diseases.