Publications

2015
Gandaglia G, Karakiewicz PI, Briganti A, Trudeau V, Trinh Q-D, Kim SP, Montorsi F, Nguyen PL, Abdollah F, Sun M. Early radiotherapy after radical prostatectomy improves cancer-specific survival only in patients with highly aggressive prostate cancer: validation of recently released criteria. Int J Urol. 2015;22 (1) :89-95.Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To test the effect of radiotherapy administered within 6 months after radical prostatectomy on cancer-specific mortality in prostate cancer patients after stratification according to a risk score. METHODS: Overall, 7616 patients with pT3/4 N0/1 prostate cancer treated with radical prostatectomy between 1995 and 2009 within the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results Medicare-linked database were included in the study. Competing-risks regression models were carried out to test the effect of early radiotherapy on cancer-specific mortality in the entire cohort, and after stratifying patients according to the risk score based on the number and nature of adverse pathological characteristics (Gleason score 8-10; pT3b/4, lymph node invasion). RESULTS: The risk score was associated with increasing 5- and 10-year cancer-specific mortality rates (P < 0.001). When considering only patients with a risk score ≥ 2, 5- and 10-year cancer-specific mortality rates were significantly lower for individuals undergoing early radiotherapy compared with their counterparts not receiving early radiotherapy (2.9 and 6.9 vs 5.7 and 16.2%, respectively; P = 0.002). The corresponding number required to treat to prevent one death from prostate cancer at 10-year follow up was 10. Early radiotherapy was not associated with lower cancer-specific mortality rates overall and in patients with a risk score <2. This was confirmed in multivariable analyses, where early radiotherapy decreased the risk of cancer-specific mortality only in patients with a risk score ≥ 2 (P ≤ 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: The presence of two or more of the following pathological features might be used to identify patients who benefit from early radiotherapy: Gleason score 8-10, pT3b/4 and lymph node invasion.
Leow JJ, Trinh QD. Editorial comment. J Urol. 2015;193 (2) :505.
Fossati N, Trinh Q-D, Sammon J, Sood A, Larcher A, Sun M, Karakiewicz P, Guazzoni G, Montorsi F, Briganti A, et al. Identifying optimal candidates for local treatment of the primary tumor among patients diagnosed with metastatic prostate cancer: a SEER-based study. Eur Urol. 2015;67 (1) :3-6.Abstract
UNLABELLED: A recent study observed a survival benefit in men diagnosed with metastatic prostate cancer (mPCa) and managed with local treatment of the primary tumor (LT; either radical prostatectomy plus pelvic lymph node dissection or radiation therapy). We tested the hypothesis that only specific mPCa patients would benefit from LT and that the potential benefit would vary based on primary tumor characteristics. A total of 8197 mPCa patients at diagnosis (M1a, M1b, and M1c) were identified using the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results database (2004-2011) and were divided according to treatment type: LT versus nonlocal treatment of the primary tumor (NLT; either androgen deprivation therapy or observation). Multivariable Cox regression analysis was used to predict cancer-specific mortality (CSM) in patients that received NLT. To assess whether the benefit of LT was different by baseline risk, we tested an interaction with CSM risk and LT. At multivariable analysis, all predictors were significantly associated with CSM, and the interaction test was statistically significant (p<0.0001). Local treatment of the primary tumor, compared with NLT, conferred a higher CSM-free survival rate in patients with a predicted CSM risk <40%. The number needed to treat according to the predicted CSM risk at 3 yr after diagnosis remained substantially constant from 10% to 30%, whereas it exponentially increased for predicted CSM risk >40%. These results should serve as a foundation for future prospective trials. PATIENT SUMMARY: Among metastatic prostate cancer patients, the potential benefit of local treatment to the primary tumor depends greatly on tumor characteristics, and patient selection is essential to avoid either over- or undertreatment.
Mahal BA, Inverso G, Aizer AA, Ziehr DR, Hyatt AS, Choueiri TK, Hoffman KE, Hu JC, Beard CJ, D'Amico AV, et al. Incidence and determinants of 1-month mortality after cancer-directed surgery. Ann Oncol. 2015;26 (2) :399-406.Abstract
BACKGROUND: Death within 1 month of surgery is considered treatment related and serves as an important health care quality metric. We sought to identify the incidence of and factors associated with 1-month mortality after cancer-directed surgery. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program to study a cohort of 1 110 236 patients diagnosed from 2004 to 2011 with cancers that are among the 10 most common or most fatal who received cancer-directed surgery. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with 1-month mortality after cancer-directed surgery. RESULTS: A total of 53 498 patients (4.8%) died within 1 month of cancer-directed surgery. Patients who were married, insured, or who had a top 50th percentile income or educational status had lower odds of 1-month mortality from cancer-directed surgery {[adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.80; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.79-0.82; P < 0.001], (AOR 0.88; 95% CI 0.82-0.94; P < 0.001), (AOR 0.95; 95% CI 0.93-0.97; P < 0.001), and (AOR 0.98; 95% CI 0.96-0.99; P = 0.043), respectively}. Patients who were non-white minority, male, or older (per year increase), or who had advanced tumor stage 4 disease all had a higher risk of 1-month mortality after cancer-directed surgery, with AORs of 1.13 (95% CI 1.11-1.15), P < 0.001; 1.11 (95% CI 1.08-1.13), P < 0.001; 1.02 (95% 1.02-1.03), P < 0.001; and 1.89 (95% CI 1.82-1.95), P < 0.001 respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Unmarried, uninsured, non-white, male, older, less educated, and poorer patients were all at a significantly higher risk for death within 1 month of cancer-directed surgery. Efforts to reduce 1-month surgical mortality and eliminate sociodemographic disparities in this adverse outcome could significantly improve survival among patients with cancer.
Ziehr DR, Mahal BA, Aizer AA, Hyatt AS, Beard CJ, D'Amico AV, Choueiri TK, Elfiky A, Lathan CS, Martin NE, et al. Income inequality and treatment of African American men with high-risk prostate cancer. Urol Oncol. 2015;33 (1) :18.e7-13.Abstract
PURPOSE: Definitive treatment of high-risk prostate cancer with radical prostatectomy or radiation improves survival. We assessed whether racial disparities in the receipt of definitive therapy for prostate cancer vary by regional income. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A cohort of 102,486 men (17,594 African American [AA] and 84,892 non-Hispanic white) with localized high-risk prostate cancer (prostate-specific antigen >20 ng/ml or Gleason ≥ 8 or stage ≥ cT2c) diagnosed from 2004 to 2010 was identified in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. Income was measured at the census-tract-level. We used multivariable logistic regression to assess patient and cancer characteristics associated with the receipt of definitive therapy for prostate cancer. Multivariable Fine and Gray competing risks analysis was used to evaluate factors associated with prostate cancer death. RESULTS: Overall, AA men were less likely to receive definitive therapy than white men (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.51; 95% CI: 0.49-0.54; P<0.001), and there was a significant race/income interaction (Pinteraction = 0.016) such that there was a larger racial treatment disparity in the bottom income quintile (AOR = 0.49; 95% CI: 0.45-0.55; P<0.001) than in the top income quintile (AOR = 0.60; 95% CI: 0.51-0.71; P<0.001). After a median follow-up of 35 months, AA men in the bottom income quintile suffered the greatest prostate cancer mortality (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.47; 95% CI: 1.17-1.84; P = 0.001), compared with white men in the top income quintile. CONCLUSIONS: Racial disparities in the receipt of definitive therapy for high-risk prostate cancer are greatest in low-income communities, suggesting that interventions to reduce racial disparities should target low-income populations first.
Lavigueur-Blouin H, Noriega AC, Valdivieso R, Hueber P-A, Bienz M, Alhathal N, Latour M, Trinh Q-D, El-Hakim A, Zorn KC. Predictors of early continence following robot-assisted radical prostatectomy. Can Urol Assoc J. 2015;9 (1-2) :e93-7.Abstract
INTRODUCTION: Functional outcomes after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) greatly influence patient quality of life. Data regarding predictors of early continence, especially 1 month following RARP, are limited. Previous reports mainly address immediate or 3-month postoperative continence rates. We examine preoperative predictors of pad-free continence recovery at the first follow-up visit 1 month after RARP. METHODS: Between January 2007 and January 2013, preoperative and follow-up data were prospectively collected for 327 RARP patients operated on by 2 fellowship-trained surgeons (AEH and KCZ). Patient and operative characteristics included age, body mass index (BMI), staging, preoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA), prostate weight, International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM) score and type of nerve-sparing performed. Continence was defined by 0-pad usage at 1 month follow-up. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess for predictors of early continence. RESULTS: Overall, 44% of patients were pad-free 1 month post-RARP. In multivariate regression analysis, age (odds ratio [OR] 0.946, confidence interval [CI] 95%: 0.91, 0.98) and IPSS (OR: 0.953, CI 95%: 0.92, 0.99) were independent predictors of urinary continence 1 month following RARP. Other variables (BMI, staging, preoperative PSA, SHIM score, prostate weight and type of nerve-sparing) were not statistically significant predictors of early continence. Limitations of this study include missing data for comorbidities, patient use of pelvic floor exercises and patient maximal activity. Moreover, patient-reported continence using a 0-pad usage definition represents a semiquantitative and subjective measurement. CONCLUSION: In a broad population of patients who underwent RARP at our institution, 44% of patients were pad-free at 1 month. Age and IPSS were independent predictors of early continence after surgery. Men of advanced age and those with significant lower urinary tract symptoms prior to RARP should be counselled on the increased risk of urinary incontinence in the early stages.
Sammon JD, Trinh Q-D. Reply: To PMID 25623683. Urology. 2015;85 (2) :349-50.
2014
Rieken M, Schubert T, Xylinas E, Kluth L, Rouprêt M, Trinh Q-D, Lee RK, Al Hussein Al Awamlh B, Fajkovic H, Novara G, et al. Association of perioperative blood transfusion with oncologic outcomes after radical nephroureterectomy for upper tract urothelial carcinoma. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2014;40 (12) :1693-9.Abstract
BACKGROUND: To test the hypothesis that perioperative blood transfusion (PBT)impacts oncologic outcomes of patients treated with radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) for upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 2492 patients with UTUC treated at 23 institutions with RNU between 1987 and 2007.Cox regression models addressed the association of PBT with disease recurrence, cancer-specific mortality and any-cause mortality. RESULTS: A total of 510 patients (20.5%) patients received PBT. Within a median follow-up of 36 months (Interquartile range: 55 months), 663 (26.6%) patients experienced disease recurrence, 545 patients (21.9%) died of UTUC and 884 (35.5%) patients died from any cause. Patients who received PBT were at significantly higher risk of disease recurrence, cancer-specific mortality and overall mortality than patients not receiving PBT in univariable Cox regression analyses. In multivariable Cox regression analyses that adjusted for the effects of standard clinicopathologic features, PBT did not remain associated with disease recurrence (HR: 1.11; 95% CI 0.92-1.33, p = 0.25), cancer-specific mortality (HR: 1.09; 95% CI 0.89-1.33, p = 0.41) or overall mortality (HR: 1.09; 95% CI 0.93-1.28, p = 0.29). CONCLUSIONS: In patients undergoing RNU for UTUC, PBT is associated with disease recurrence, cancer-specific survival or overall survival in univariable, but not in multivariable Cox regression analyses.
Becker A, Bianchi M, Hansen J, Tian Z, Shariat SF, Popa I, Perrotte P, Trinh Q-D, Karakiewicz PI, Sun M. Benefit in regionalization of care for patients treated with nephrectomy: a Nationwide Inpatient Sample. World J Urol. 2014;32 (6) :1511-21.Abstract
PURPOSE: To provide in absolute terms a quantification of regionalization of care from low- to high-volume hospitals in patients treated with nephrectomy for non-metastatic renal cell carcinoma. METHODS: Relying on the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, 48,172 patients with non-metastatic renal cell carcinoma undergoing nephrectomy were identified. All analyses focused on five specific endpoints: intraoperative complications, postoperative complications, blood transfusions, prolonged hospitalization, and in-hospital mortality. First, multivariable logistic regression models for prediction of the aforementioned endpoints were fitted among high-volume hospitals treated patients. Second, obtained coefficients from such models were applied onto low-volume hospitals treated individuals. Potentially avoidable events were computed through differences between observed and predicted adverse events. The number needed to treat was generated. RESULTS: Low-volume hospitals treated individuals were between 11 and 28 % more likely to succumb to an adverse outcome (all P < 0.001). Differences between observed and predicted adverse outcome rates were all in favor of high-volume hospitals, except for in-hospital mortality. Potentially avoidable intraoperative complications, postoperative complications, blood transfusions, prolonged hospitalization, and in-hospital mortality rates were 1.4, 5.6, 7.6, 24.0, and 0.7 %, respectively. Thus, for every 71, 18, 13, 4, and 143 nephrectomies that are redirected to high-volume hospitals, 1 intraoperative complication, postoperative complication, blood transfusion, prolonged hospitalization, and in-hospital mortality could be potentially avoided. CONCLUSIONS: Regionalization from low- to high-volume hospitals for patients undergoing a nephrectomy is associated with important benefits, for both the payer and patient's perspectives.
Schmid M, Ravi P, Abd-El-Barr A-E-RM, Klap J, Sammon JD, Chang SL, Menon M, Kibel AS, Fisch M, Trinh Q-D. Chronic kidney disease and perioperative outcomes in urological oncological surgery. Int J Urol. 2014;21 (12) :1245-52.Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate baseline renal dysfunction among patients undergoing urological oncological surgery and its impact on early postoperative outcomes. METHODS: Between 2005 and 2011, patients who underwent minimally-invasive or open radical prostatectomy, partial nephrectomy and radical nephrectomy, or open radical cystectomy, respectively, were identified in the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program dataset. Preoperative kidney function was assessed using estimated glomerular filtration rate and staged according to National Kidney Foundation definitions. Multivariable logistic regression was used to model the association between preoperative renal function and the risk of 30-day mortality and major complications. Furthermore the impact of chronic kidney disease on operation time and length of hospital stay was assessed. RESULTS: Overall, 13,168 patients underwent radical prostatectomy (65.4%), partial nephrectomy (10.7%) and radical nephrectomy (16.1%) and radical cystectomy (7.8%), respectively; 50.1% of evaluable patients had reduced kidney function (chronic kidney disease II), and a further 12.6, 0.7 and 0.9% were respectively classified into chronic kidney disease stages III, IV, and V. Chronic kidney disease was an independent predictor of 30-day major postoperative complications (chronic kidney disease III: odds ratio 1.61, P < 0.001; chronic kidney disease IV: odds ratio 2.24, P = 0.01), of transfusions (chronic kidney disease III: odds ratio 2.14, P < 0001), of prolonged length of stay (chronic kidney disease III: odds ratio 2.61, P < 0.001; chronic kidney disease IV: odds ratio 3.37, P < 0.001; and chronic kidney disease V: odds ratio 1.68; P = 0.03) and of 30-day mortality (chronic kidney disease III: odds ratio 4.15, P = 0.01; chronic kidney disease IV: odds ratio 10.10, P = 0.003; and chronic kidney disease V: odds ratio 17.07, P < 0.001) compared with patients with no kidney disease. CONCLUSIONS: Renal dysfunction might be underrecognized in patients undergoing urological cancer surgery. Chronic kidney disease stages III, IV and V are independent predictors for poor 30-day postoperative outcomes.
Gandaglia G, Karakiewicz PI, Abdollah F, Becker A, Roghmann F, Sammon JD, Kim SP, Perrotte P, Briganti A, Montorsi F, et al. The effect of age at diagnosis on prostate cancer mortality: a grade-for-grade and stage-for-stage analysis. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2014;40 (12) :1706-15.Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of advancing age on cancer-specific mortality (CSM) after radical prostatectomy (RP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Overall, 205,551 patients with PCa diagnosed between 1988 and 2009 within the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database were included in the study. Patients were stratified according to age at diagnosis: ≤ 50, 51-60, 61-70, and ≥ 71 years. The 15-year cumulative incidence CSM rates were computed. Competing-risks regression models were performed to test the effect of age on CSM in the entire cohort, and for each grade (Gleason score 2-4, 5-7, and 8-10) and stage (pT2, pT3a, and pT3b) sub-cohorts. RESULTS: Advancing age was associated with higher 15-year CSM rates (2.3 vs. 3.4 vs. 4.6 vs. 6.3% for patients aged ≤ 50 vs. 51-60 vs. 61-70 vs. ≥ 71 years, respectively; P < 0.001). In multivariable analyses, age at diagnosis was a significant predictor of CSM. This relationship was also observed in sub-analyses focusing on patients with Gleason score 5-7, and/or pT2 disease (all P ≤ 0.05). Conversely, age failed to reach the independent predictor status in men with Gleason score 2-4, 8-10, pT3a, and/or pT3b disease. CONCLUSIONS: Advancing age increases the risk of CSM. However, when considering patients affected by more aggressive disease, age was not significantly associated with higher risk of dying from PCa. In high-risk patients, tumor characteristics rather than age should be considered when making treatment decisions.
Gandaglia G, Sun M, Hu JC, Novara G, Choueiri TK, Nguyen PL, Schiffmann J, Graefen M, Shariat SF, Abdollah F, et al. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists and acute kidney injury in patients with prostate cancer. Eur Urol. 2014;66 (6) :1125-32.Abstract
BACKGROUND: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) might increase the risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with prostate cancer (PCa). OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of ADT on AKI in a large contemporary cohort of patients with nonmetastatic PCa representing the US population. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Overall, 69 292 patients diagnosed with nonmetastatic PCa between 1995 and 2009 were abstracted from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare database. OUTCOMES MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSES: Patient in both treatment arms (ADT vs. no ADT) were matched using propensity-score methodology. Ten-year AKI rates were estimated. Competing-risks regression analyses tested the association between ADT and AKI, after adjusting for the risk of death during follow-up. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Overall, the 10-yr AKI rates were 24.9% versus 30.7% for ADT-naive patients versus those treated with ADT, respectively (p<0.001). When patients were stratified according to the type of ADT, the 10-yr AKI rates were 31.1% versus 26.0% for men treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists and bilateral orchiectomy, respectively (p<0.001). In multivariable analyses, the administration of GnRH agonists (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.24; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18-1.31; p<0.001), but not bilateral orchiectomy (HR: 1.11; 95% CI, 0.96-1.29; p=0.1), was associated with the risk of experiencing AKI. Our study is limited by its retrospective design. CONCLUSIONS: ADT is associated with an increased risk of AKI in patients with nonmetastatic PCa. In particular, the administration of GnRH agonists, but not surgical castration, may substantially increase the risk of experiencing AKI. These observations should help provide physicians with better patient selection to reduce the risk of AKI. PATIENT SUMMARY: The administration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists, but not bilateral orchiectomy, increases the risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with prostate cancer (PCa). These observations should help provide physicians with better patient selection to reduce the risk of AKI in PCa patients.
Gandaglia G, Sun M, Popa I, Schiffmann J, Abdollah F, Trinh Q-D, Saad F, Graefen M, Briganti A, Montorsi F, et al. The impact of androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) on the risk of cardiovascular (CV) events in patients with non-metastatic prostate cancer: a population-based study. BJU Int. 2014;114 (6b) :E82-9.Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To examine and quantify the contemporary association between androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) and three separate endpoints: coronary artery disease (CAD), acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and sudden cardiac death (SCD), in a large USA contemporary cohort of patients with prostate cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In all, 140 474 patients diagnosed with non-metastatic prostate cancer between 1995 and 2009 within the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare linked database were abstracted. Patients treated with ADT and those not receiving ADT were matched using propensity score methodology. The 10-year CAD, AMI, and SCD rates were estimated. Competing-risks regression analyses tested the association between the type of ADT (GnRH agonists vs bilateral orchidectomy) and CAD, AMI, and SCD, after adjusting for the risk of dying during follow-up. RESULTS: Overall, the 10-year rates of CAD, AMI, and SCD were 25.9%, 15.6%, and 15.8%, respectively. After stratification according to ADT status (ADT-naïve vs GnRH agonists vs bilateral orchidectomy), the CAD rates were 25.1% vs 26.9% vs 23.2%, the AMI rates were 14.8% vs 16.6% vs 14.8%, and the SCD rates were 14.2% vs 17.7% vs 16.4%, respectively. In competing-risks multivariable regression analyses, the administration of GnRH agonists (all P < 0.001), but not bilateral orchidectomy (all P ≥ 0.7), was associated with higher risk of CAD, AMI, and SCD. CONCLUSIONS: The administration of GnRH agonists, but not orchidectomy, is still associated with a significantly increased risk of CAD, AMI, and, especially, SCD in patients with non-metastatic prostate cancer. Alternative forms of ADT should be considered in patients at higher risk of CV events.
Sukumar S, Rogers CG, Trinh QD, Sammon J, Sood A, Stricker H, Peabody JO, Menon M, Diaz-Insua M. Oncological outcomes after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy: long-term follow-up in 4803 patients. BJU Int. 2014;114 (6) :824-31.Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate oncological outcomes in patients undergoing robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) at a high-volume tertiary centre with focus on biochemical recurrence (BCR); previous studies on oncological outcomes for patients undergoing RARP for prostate cancer are limited to small series. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In all, 5152 consecutive patients underwent RARP from 2001 to 2010; 4803 patients comprised the study cohort after exclusions. BCR was defined as a serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level of ≥0.2 ng/mL with a confirmatory value. BCR-free survival (BCRFS), metastasis-free survival (MFS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox hazards regression models were generated. RESULTS: The mean preoperative PSA level was 6.1 ng/mL, pathological Gleason grade and stage were ≥7 in 68% and ≥pT3 in 34% of patients. There was BCR in 470 patients (9.8%), 31 patients developed metastatic disease (0.7%) and 13 patients died from prostate cancer (0.3%) during a mean (range) follow-up of 34.6 (1-116.7) months. Actuarial 8-year BCRFS, MFS and CSS were 81%, 98.5% and 99.1%, respectively. In patients with node-positive disease, actuarial 5-year BCRFS, MFS, and CSS were 26%, 82%, and 97%. For organ-confined disease, predictors of BCR included pathology Gleason grade (primary Gleason 5 vs 3, hazard ratio [HR] 5.52, P = 0.018; Gleason 4 vs 3, HR 1.97, P = 0.001), preoperative PSA level (10-20 vs ≤10 ng/mL, HR 2.38, P = 0.001), and surgical margin status (positive vs negative, HR 3.84, P < 0.001) CONCLUSIONS: RARP appears to confer effective long-term biochemical control. To our knowledge, this is the largest report of oncological outcomes in a RARP series to date.
Varda BK, Schmid M, Trinh Q-D. Predicting other-cause mortality: the minimalistic approach. Eur Urol. 2014;66 (6) :1010-1.
Hanske J, Roghmann F, Noldus J, Trinh Q-D. Robotic and conventional open radical cystectomy lead to similar postoperative health-related quality of life. BJU Int. 2014;114 (6) :793-4.
Gandaglia G, Sun M, Trinh Q-D, Becker A, Schiffmann J, Hu JC, Briganti A, Montorsi F, Perrotte P, Karakiewicz PI, et al. Survival benefit of definitive therapy in patients with clinically advanced prostate cancer: estimations of the number needed to treat based on competing-risks analysis. BJU Int. 2014;114 (6b) :E62-9.Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To describe the survival benefit associated with radical prostatectomy (RP), as compared with initial observation, in patients with locally advanced prostate cancer (PCa). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Overall, 1382 patients with locally advanced PCa treated with RP or initial observation between 1995 and 2009 were identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Medicare insurance programme-linked database. Patients were matched using propensity-score methodology, then 10-year cancer-specific mortality (CSM) rates were estimated and the number needed to treat (NNT) was calculated. Competing-risks regression analyses tested the relationship between treatment type and CSM. RESULTS: Overall, the 10-year CSM rates were 11.8 and 19.3% for patients treated with RP and initial observation, respectively (P < 0.001). The corresponding 10-year NNT was 13. The 10-year CSM rates for the same treatment groups were 8.9 vs 13.9%, respectively, for Gleason score ≤7, 16.8 vs 27.8%, respectively, for Gleason score 8-10, 10.1 vs 15.8%, respectively, for clinical stage T3a, and 17.0 vs 29.3%, respectively, for T3b/T4, respectively (all P ≤ 0.04). The corresponding NNTs were 20, 9, 17 and 8, respectively. In multivariable analyses, RP was an independent predictor of more favourable CSM rates in all categories (all P ≤ 0.04). In separate sensitivity analyses, no differences were recorded when patients treated with radiotherapy were compared with those receiving RP (P = 0.4). Conversely, patients undergoing initial observation had a higher risk of CSM compared with those treated with radiotherapy (P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: RP leads to a significant survival advantage compared with observation in patients with locally advanced disease. The highest benefit was observed in patients with T3b/T4 and Gleason score 8-10 disease.
Kardos SV, Gross CP, Shah ND, Schulam PG, Trinh Q-D, Smaldone MC, Sun M, Weight CJ, Sammon J, Han LC, et al. Association of type of renal surgery and access to robotic technology for kidney cancer: results from a population-based cohort. BJU Int. 2014;114 (4) :549-54.Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between partial nephrectomy (PN) and hospital availability of robot-assisted surgery from a population-based cohort in the USA. METHODS: After merging the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) and the American Hospital Association survey from 2006 to 2008, we identified 21 179 patients who underwent either PN or radical nephrectomy (RN) for renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The primary outcome assessed was the type of nephrectomy performed. Multivariable logistic regression identified the patient and hospital characteristics associated with receipt of PN. RESULTS: We identified 4832 (22.8%) and 16 347 (77.2%) patients who were treated for RCC with PN and RN, respectively. On multivariable analysis, patients were more likely to receive PN at academic centres (odds ratio [OR] 2.77; P < 0.001), urban centres (OR 3.66; P < 0.001) and American College of Surgeons (ACOS)-designated cancer centres (OR: 1.10; P < 0.05) compared with non-academic, rural and non-ACOS-designated cancer centre hospitals, respectively. Robot-assisted surgery availability at a hospital was also associated with a higher adjusted odds of PN compared with centres without that availability (OR 1.28; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Although academic and urban locations are established factors that affect the receipt of PN for RCC, the availability of robot-assisted surgery at a hospital was also independently associated with higher use of PN. Our results are informative in identifying other key hospital characteristics which may facilitate greater adoption of PN.
Hu JC, Gandaglia G, Karakiewicz PI, Nguyen PL, Trinh Q-D, Tina Shih Y-C, Abdollah F, Chamie K, Wright JL, Ganz PA, et al. Comparative effectiveness of robot-assisted versus open radical prostatectomy cancer control. Eur Urol. 2014;66 (4) :666-72.Abstract
BACKGROUND: Robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) remains controversial, and no improvement in cancer control outcomes has been demonstrated over open radical prostatectomy (ORP). OBJECTIVE: To examine population-based, comparative effectiveness of RARP versus ORP pertaining surgical margin status and use of additional cancer therapy. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This was a retrospective observational study of 5556 RARP and 7878 ORP cases from 2004 to 2009 from Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare linked data. INTERVENTION: RARP versus ORP. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Propensity-based analyses were performed to minimize treatment selection biases. Generalized linear regression models were computed for comparison of RP surgical margin status and use of additional cancer therapy (radiation therapy [RT] or androgen deprivation therapy [ADT]) by surgical approach. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: In the propensity-adjusted analysis, RARP was associated with fewer positive surgical margins (13.6% vs 18.3%; odds ratio [OR]: 0.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.66-0.75), largely because of fewer RARP positive margins for intermediate-risk (15.0% vs 21.0%; OR: 0.66; 95% CI, 0.59-0.75) and high-risk (15.1% vs 20.6%; OR: 0.70; 95% CI, 0.63-0.77) disease. In addition, RARP was associated with less use of additional cancer therapy within 6 mo (4.5% vs 6.2%; OR: 0.75; 95% CI, 0.69-0.81), 12 mo (OR: 0.73; 95% CI, 0.62-0.86), and 24 mo (OR: 0.67; 95% CI, 0.57-0.78) of surgery. Limitations include the retrospective nature of the study and the absence of prostate-specific antigen levels to determine biochemical recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: RARP is associated with improved surgical margin status relative to ORP for intermediate- and high-risk disease and less use of postprostatectomy ADT and RT. This has important implications for quality of life, health care delivery, and costs. PATIENT SUMMARY: Robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RP) versus open RP is associated with fewer positive margins and better early cancer control because of less use of additional androgen deprivation and radiation therapy within 2 yr of surgery.
Sammon JD, Pucheril D, Diaz M, Kibel AS, Kantoff PW, Menon M, Trinh Q-D. Contemporary nationwide patterns of self-reported prostate-specific antigen screening. JAMA Intern Med. 2014;174 (11) :1839-41.

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