PURPOSE: To assess the national trends and comparative effectiveness of the various treatments for pediatric ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO).
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Within the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, a weighted estimate of 35,275 pediatric patients (<19 years; 1998-2010) with UPJO underwent open pyeloplasty (OP), laparoscopic pyeloplasty (LP), robot-assisted pyeloplasty (RP, ≥October 2008) or endopyelotomy (EP). National trends in utilization and comparative effectiveness were evaluated.
RESULTS: Minimally invasive pyeloplasty (RP+LP, MIP) utilization began to increase in 2007; MIP accounted for 16.9% of cases (2008-2010). EP accounted for 1.4% of all cases from 1998 to 2010. On individual multivariate models (relative to OP): (a) no significant differences were noted between groups for intraoperative complications; (b) RP and LP had equivalent risks of postoperative complications developing (vs OP), but EP had a significantly higher risk of postoperative complications; (c) RP and EP had significantly higher risks of necessitating transfusions; (d) RP, LP, and EP had higher overall risks of greater hospital charges; (e) RP had a lower risk of greater length of stay, while EP had a higher risk (LP and OP were equivalent).
CONCLUSIONS: OP continues to be the predominant treatment for patients with UPJO. RP was the most common MIP modality in every age group. Compared with OP patients, RP patients had equivalent risk for intraoperative and postoperative complications, lower risk for greater length-of-stay, but higher risks for transfusions and greater hospital charges. LP patients had higher overall hospital charges, but no mitigating benefits relative to OP. EP fared poorly on most outcomes.
BACKGROUND: During the last years, there has been a rapid adoption of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in patients with prostate cancer (PCa), despite the lack of randomized trials evaluating its effectiveness. The aim of our study was to evaluate the survival benefit associated with IMRT in patients with PCa.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Overall, 42 483 patients with PCa treated with IMRT or initial observation between 2001 and 2007 within the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare were evaluated. Patients in both treatment arms were matched using propensity-score methodology. After propensity-score matching, 19 064 patients remained in our analyses. Eight-year cancer-specific mortality (CSM) rates were estimated, and the number needed to treat (NNT) was calculated. Competing risks regression analyses tested the relationship between treatment type and CSM.
RESULTS: Overall, the 8-year CSM rates were 3.4% and 4.1% for patients treated with IMRT versus initial observation, respectively (P < 0.001). The corresponding 8-year NNT was 142. In patients with low/intermediate-risk disease, IMRT was not associated with lower CSM rates compared with observation (P = 0.7). In patients with high-risk disease, the 8-year CSM rates for IMRT versus observation were 5.8% versus 10.5%, respectively (P < 0.001). The corresponding NNT was 21. When high-risk patients were stratified according to age (<73 versus ≥73), and Charlson comorbidity index (≤1 versus >1) the 8-year CSM rates for IMRT versus observation were 4.3% versus 9.4% and 6.9% versus 11.9% and 5.3% versus 11.4% and 6.1% versus 10.1%, respectively (all Ps < 0.001). The corresponding NNTs were 19, 21, 16, and 25, respectively. In multivariate analyses, the protective effect of IMRT was more evident in high-risk patients with younger age and lower comorbidities.
CONCLUSIONS: IMRT leads to a survival advantage only in patients with high-risk disease. Conversely, patients with low/intermediate-risk disease did not benefit from IMRT at 8-year follow-up.
BACKGROUND: To the authors' knowledge, it remains unknown whether race-based differences in cancer outcomes have changed with time. In the current study, the authors assessed whether racial disparities in cancer-specific mortality have improved over the last 20 years.
METHODS: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program was used to identify 2,713,474 patients diagnosed between 1988 and 2007 with either lung, breast, prostate, or colorectal cancer (the leading 3 causes of cancer-related mortality among each sex). After exclusions, 1,001,978 patients remained eligible for analysis. The impact of race on cancer-specific mortality was assessed using the regression model of Fine and Gray; an interaction model evaluated trends over time.
RESULTS: African Americans presented with a more advanced stage of disease (P < .001) and underwent definitive therapy less often (P < .001) than whites. After adjustment for demographics and year of diagnosis, African Americans were found to have higher estimates of cancer-specific mortality than whites for all cancers combined (hazards ratio, 1.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.26-1.30 [P < .001]) and within each individual cancer (each P < .05). These differences did not change significantly between 1988 through 1997 and 1998 through 2007, except among patients with breast cancer, in whom survival disparities increased. These findings remained significant after adjustment for stage of disease at presentation and receipt of definitive therapy (hazards ratio for breast cancer mortality in African Americans vs whites: 1.37 from 1988-1997 and 1.53 from 1998-2007; P for interaction, < .001).
CONCLUSIONS: The survival gap for African Americans has not closed over time. Race-based differences in outcome persist independent of stage of disease and treatment, suggesting that additional strategies beyond screening and improving access to care, such as further research into tumor biologies disproportionately affecting African Americans, are needed to improve survival for African American patients with cancer.
OBJECTIVE: To assess postoperative complication profiles and 30-day mortality (30 dM) in older patients undergoing either laparoscopic radical nephrectomy (LRN) compared with open partial nephrectomy (OPN) or laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) for early stage renal cell carcinoma.
METHODS: Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare linked database, 2277 patients aged>65 years with T1 renal cell carcinoma, who underwent LRN, OPN, or LPN were identified (1992-2005). Surgical and medical complications and 30 dM after nephrectomy were abstracted. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed.
RESULTS: Relative to LRN, the rate of surgical complications was higher for OPN (28% vs 20%; P<.001) and LPN (29% vs 20%; P=.01). These differences persisted after multivariate adjustment for patient and tumor characteristics (OPN: odds ratio, 1.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.28-1.91; P<.001; LPN: odds ratio, 1.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-2.39; P=.01). Specifically, relative to LRN, OPN was associated with a 7% higher rate of genitourinary complications (13% vs 20%; P<.001). Similarly, relative to LRN, LPN was associated with a 7% higher rate of genitourinary complications (13% vs 20%; P=.001) and with a 4% higher rate of hemorrhagic complications (8% vs 4%; P=.02). No statistically significant differences were recorded for all other surgical and/or medical complication types and 30 dM (all P≥.2).
CONCLUSION: The complication and 30-dM rates were not different between LRN, OPN, and LPN groups. Exceptions include genitourinary complications that favor LRN relative to OPN and LPN and hemorrhagic complications that favor LRN relative to LPN. It is doubtful that these results should discourage the use of partial nephrectomy relative to LRN in older patients.
PURPOSE: To perform a national survey of radiation oncologists and urologists about the type of resources used and the level of evidence needed to change clinical practice in localized prostate cancer.
METHODS AND MATERIALS: From a random sample, 1422 physicians were mailed a survey assessing the types of information used and what level of evidence could alter their clinical practice in prostate cancer. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to identify differences in physician characteristics for each outcome.
RESULTS: Survey response rates were similar for radiation oncologists and urologists (44% vs 46%; P=.46). Specialty-specific journals represented the most commonly used resource for informing the clinical practice for radiation oncologists (65%) and urologists (70%). Relative to radiation oncologists, urologists were less likely to report utilizing top-tier medical journals (25% vs 39%; adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.50; P=.01) or cancer journals (22% vs 51%; adjusted OR 0.50; P<.001) but more likely to rely on clinical guidelines (46% vs 38%; adjusted OR 1.6; P=.006). Both radiation oncologists and urologists most commonly reported large randomized, clinical trials as the level of evidence to change treatment recommendations for localized prostate cancer (85% vs 77%; P=.009).
CONCLUSIONS: Both specialties rely on their own specialty-specific journals and view randomized, clinical trials as the level of evidence needed to change clinical practice. Our study provides a context on meaningful ways of disseminating evidence for localized prostate cancer.
OBJECTIVES: To determine factors that influence radical prostatectomy (RP) operative times. Operative time assessment is inherent to defining surgeon learning curves and evaluating quality of care.
SUBJECTS/PATIENTS AND METHODS: Population-based observational cohort study using USA Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare linked data of men diagnosed with prostate cancer during 2003-2007 who underwent robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP, 3458 men) and retropubic RP (RRP, 6993) through to 2009. We obtained median operative time using anaesthesia administrative data for RP and used median regression to assess the contribution of patient, surgeon, and hospital factors to operative times.
RESULTS: The median RARP operative time decreased from 315 to 247 min from 2003 to 2008-2009 (P < 0.001), while the median RRP operative time remained similar (195 vs 197 min, P = 0.90). In adjusted analysis, RARP vs RRP (parameter estimate [PE] 70.9; 95% confidence interval [CI] 58, 84; P < 0.001) and obesity (PE 15; 95% CI 7, 23; P < 0.001) were associated with longer operative times while higher surgeon volumes were associated with shorter operative times (P < 0.001). RPs performed by surgeons employed by group (parameter estimate [PE] -22.76; 95% CI -38, -7.49; P = 0.004) and non-government (PE -35.59; 95% CI -68.15, -3.03; P = 0.032) vs government facilities and non-profit vs government hospital ownership (PE -21.85; 95% CI -32.28, -11.42; P < 0.001) were associated with shorter operative times.
CONCLUSIONS: During our study period, RARP operative times decreased by 68 min while RRP operative times remained stagnant. Higher surgeon volume was associated with shorter operative times, and selective referral or improved efficiency to the level of high-volume surgeons would net almost $15 million (USA dollars) in annual savings.
OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with weight gain at 1 year from initiation of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT).
METHODS: A retrospective review assessed weight change among 118 men with nonmetastatic prostate cancer treated with ADT for at least 6 months. Outcome associations were tested using 2-tailed t tests and linear regression.
RESULTS: Men in our cohort had significant weight gain (+1.32 kg, P=.0005) in the 1 year after ADT initiation. Three risk factors for weight gain on ADT were identified as follows: age<65 years (2.72 kg gained, P=.001), body mass index (BMI)<30 (1.98 kg gained, P=.00002), and nondiabetic status (1.56 kg gained, P=.0003). Multivariable regression found both age<65 years (beta=4.01, P=.02) and BMI<30 (beta=3.57, P=.03) to be independently predictive of weight gain, whereas nondiabetic status was nonsignificantly predictive of weight gain (beta=2.14, P=.29). Weight change was further stratified by the total number of risk factors present (risk score): scores of 0, 1, 2, and 3 risk factors corresponded to weight changes of -1.10, +0.41, +1.34, and +3.79 kg, respectively (P-trend=.0005).
CONCLUSION: Age<65 years and BMI<30 were both independently associated with weight gain 1 year after starting ADT. Increasing weight gain was also strongly associated with increasing number of baseline risk factors present. Despite traditional concerns about ADT in unhealthy men, these data suggest younger, healthier patients may be at higher risk for gaining weight on ADT and should be counseled accordingly.
INTRODUCTION: We compare the complication rates and length of stay (LOS) of laser transurethral resection of the prostate (L-TURP) versus electrocautery transurethral resection of the prostate (E-TURP) in a population-based cohort. L-TURP has shown enhanced intraoperative safety and equivalent efficacy relative to E-TURP in several high volume centres.
METHODS: Relying on the Florida Datafile as part of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project State Inpatient Databases (SID) between 2006 and 2008, we identified 8066 men with benign prostate hyperplasia who underwent L-TURP or E-TURP. Chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests were used to compare baseline characteristics. A multivariable linear regression model was used to analyze the effect of L-TURP versus E-TURP on complication rates and LOS.
RESULTS: Overall complication rates did not differ significantly for L-TURP compared to E-TURP in univariable (8.8 vs. 7.4%, p = 0.1) and multivariable analyses (odds ratio [OR]: 1.06, confidence interval [CI]: 0.85-1.32, p = 0.6). Individuals undergoing E-TURP were less likely to experience a LOS in excess of 1 day (46.2 vs. 59.7%, p < 0.001). A lower risk to experience a LOS in excess of 1 day was confirmed for patients undergoing L-TURP after a multivariable linear regression model (OR: 0.37, CI: 0.23-0.58, p < 0.001), but not for a LOS in excess of 2 days (OR: 0.96, CI: 0.83-1.10, p = 0.2).
CONCLUSIONS: Patient characteristics and perioperative safety were similar for L-TURP and E-TURP patients. However, LOS patterns demonstrated a modest benefit for L-TURP compared to E-TURP patients.
Current guidelines provide most support for the use of temsirolimus in first line therapy for metastatic non-clear cell renal cell carcinoma (nccRCC). However, this recommendation is based on scant level 2a evidence. The objective of this review is to examine the evidence supporting first line temsirolimus use in patients with metastatic nccRCC as well as alternative first line treatment options. Six studies, that assessed the efficacy of five agents qualified for inclusion. Among recognized treatment options for metastatic nccRCC, mean weighted progression free survival values of 7.9 months for temsirolimus vs. 7.3 for sunitinib vs. 8.5 months for sorafenib vs. ≈4.1 months for erlotinib were recorded based on data from 10, 74, 33 and 51 patients respectively. In conclusion, the data supporting first line temsirolimus for metastatic nccRCC are based on a small patient sample. Sunitinib's efficacy is similar to that of temsirolimus but is based on a bigger patient sample that originates from phase II studies.
OBJECTIVES: Among considerable efforts to improve quality of surgical care, expedited measures such as a selective referral to high-volume institutions have been advocated. Our objective was to examine whether racial, insurance and/or socioeconomic disparities exist in the use of high-volume hospitals for complex surgical oncological procedures within the USA.
DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Patients undergoing colectomy, cystectomy, oesophagectomy, gastrectomy, hysterectomy, lung resection, pancreatectomy or prostatectomy were identified retrospectively, using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, between years 1999 and 2009. This resulted in a weighted estimate of 2 508 916 patients.
PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Distribution of patients according to race, insurance and income characteristics was examined according to low-volume and high-volume hospitals (highest 20% of patients according to the procedure-specific mean annual volume). Generalised linear regression models for prediction of access to high-volume hospitals were performed.
RESULTS: Insurance providers and county income levels varied differently according to patients' race. Most Caucasians resided in wealthier counties, regardless of insurance types (private/Medicare), while most African Americans resided in less wealthy counties (≤$24 999), despite being privately insured. In general, Caucasians, privately insured, and those residing in wealthier counties (≥$45 000) were more likely to receive surgery at high-volume hospitals, even after adjustment for all other patient-specific characteristics. Depending on the procedure, some disparities were more prominent, but the overall trend suggests a collinear effect for race, insurance type and county income levels.
CONCLUSIONS: Prevailing disparities exist according to several patient and sociodemographic characteristics for utilisation of high-volume hospitals. Efforts should be made to directly reduce such disparities and ensure equal healthcare delivery.
INTRODUCTION: While RARP (robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy) has become the predominant surgical approach to treat localized prostate cancer, there is little Canadian data on its oncological and functional outcomes. We describe the largest RARP experience in Canada.
METHODS: Data from 722 patients who underwent RARP performed by 7 surgeons (AEH performed 288, TH 69, JBL 23, SB 17, HW 15, QT 7, and KCZ 303 patients) were collected prospectively from October 2006 to December 2013. Preoperative characteristics, as well as postoperative surgical and pathological outcomes, were collected. Functional and oncological outcomes were also assessed up to 72 months postoperative.
RESULTS: The median follow-up (Q1-Q3) was 18 months (9-36). The D'Amico risk stratification distribution was 31% low, 58% intermediate and 11% high-risk. The median operative time was 178 minutes (142-205), blood loss was 200 mL (150-300) and the postoperative hospital stay was 1 day (1-23). The transfusion rate was only 1.0%. There were 0.7% major (Clavien III-IV) and 10.1% minor (Clavien I-II) postoperative complications, with no mortality. Pathologically, 445 men (70%) were stage pT2, of which 81 (18%) had a positive surgical margin (PSM). In addition, 189 patients (30%) were stage pT3 and 87 (46%) with PSM. Urinary continence (0-pads/day) returned at 3, 6, and 12 months for 68%, 80%, and 90% of patients, respectively. Overall, the potency rates (successful penetration) for all men at 6, 12, and 24 months were 37%, 52%, and 59%, respectively. Biochemical recurrence was observed in 28 patients (4.9%), and 14 patients (2.4%) were referred for early salvage radiotherapy. In total, 49 patients (8.4%) underwent radio-therapy and/or hormonal therapy.
CONCLUSIONS: This study shows similar results compared to other high-volume RARP programs. Being the largest RARP experience in Canada, we report that RARP is safe with acceptable oncologic outcomes in a Canadian setting.
OBJECTIVES: Although post-radical prostatectomy (RP) adjuvant radiation therapy (ART) benefits disease that is staged as pT3 or higher, the optimal ART timing remains unknown. Our objective is to characterize the outcomes and optimal timing of early vs. delayed ART.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: From the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare data from 1995 to 2007, we identified 963 men with pT3N0 disease receiving early (<4 mo after RP, n = 419) vs. delayed (4-12 mo after RP, n = 544) ART after RP. Utilizing propensity score methods, we compared overall mortality, prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM), bone-related events (BRE), salvage hormonal therapy utilization, and intervention for urethral stricture. We then used the maximal statistic approach to determine at what time post-RP ART had the most significant effect on outcomes of interest in men with pT3N0 disease.
RESULTS: When compared with delayed ART in men with pT3 disease, early ART was associated with improved PCSM (0.47 vs. 1.02 events per 100 person-years; P = 0.038) and less salvage hormonal therapy (2.88 vs. 4.59 events per 100 person-years; P = 0.001). Delaying ART beyond 5 months is associated with worse PCSM (hazard ratio [HR] 2.3; P = 0.020), beyond 3 months is associated with more BRE (HR 1.6; P = 0.025), and beyond 4 months is associated higher rates of salvage hormonal therapy (HR 1.6; P = 0.002). ART performed after 9 months was associated with fewer urethral strictures (HR 0.6; P = 0.042).
CONCLUSION: Initiating ART less than 5 months after RP for pT3 is associated with improved PCSM. Early ART is also associated with fewer BRE and less use of salvage hormonal therapy if administered earlier than 3 and 4 months after RP, respectively. However, ART administered later than 9 months after RP is associated with fewer urethral strictures. Our population-based findings complement randomized trials designed with fixed ART timing.
PURPOSE: We determined practice patterns and perioperative outcomes of open and minimally invasive partial nephrectomy in the United States since the introduction of a robot-assisted modifier in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified all patients with nonmetastatic disease treated with open, laparoscopic or robotic partial nephrectomy in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample between October 2008 and December 2010. Utilization rates were assessed by year, patient and hospital characteristics. We evaluated the perioperative outcomes of open vs robotic and open vs laparoscopic partial nephrectomy using binary logistic regression models adjusted for patient and hospital covariates.
RESULTS: In a weighted sample of 38,064 partial nephrectomies 66.9%, 23.9% and 9.2% of the procedures were open, robotic and laparoscopic operations, respectively. In 2010 the relative annual increase in open, robotic and laparoscopic partial nephrectomy was 7.9%, 45.4% and 6.1%, respectively. Compared to open partial nephrectomy patients treated with minimally invasive partial nephrectomy were less likely to receive blood transfusion (robotic vs laparoscopic OR 0.56, p <0.001 vs OR 0.68, p = 0.016), postoperative complication (OR 0.63, p <0.001 vs OR 0.78, p <0.009) or prolonged length of stay (OR 0.27 vs OR 0.41, each p <0.001). Only patients who underwent the robotic procedure were less likely to experience an intraoperative complication (robotic vs laparoscopic OR 0.69, p = 0.014 vs OR 0.67, p = 0.069). Excess hospital charges were higher after robotic surgery (OR 1.35, p <0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: The dissemination of robotic surgery for partial nephrectomy in the United States has been rapid and safe. Compared to open partial nephrectomy the robotic procedure had lower odds than laparoscopic partial nephrectomy for most study outcomes except hospital charges. Robotic partial nephrectomy has now supplanted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy as the most common minimally invasive approach for partial nephrectomy.
INTRODUCTION: Late-onset hypogonadism may impair quality of life and contribute to metabolic and cardiovascular comorbidity in aging men. Testosterone replacement therapy is effective in treating hypogonadism. However, for the millions of men with a history of prostate cancer, exogenous testosterone has long been considered contraindicated, even though little data in such men are available. Clarification of this safety issue could allow treatment to be considered for a sizeable segment of the aging male population.
AIM: The aim of this study is to examine population-based utilization and impact of testosterone replacement therapy in men with prostate cancer.
METHODS: Using linked Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare data, we identified 149,354 men diagnosed with prostate cancer from 1992 to 2007. Of those, 1181 (0.79%) men received exogenous testosterone following their cancer diagnosis. We used propensity scoring analysis to examine the effect of testosterone replacement on the use of salvage hormone therapy and overall and prostate cancer-specific mortality.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We assessed overall mortality, cancer-specific mortality, and the use of salvage hormone therapy.
RESULTS: Following prostate cancer diagnosis, testosterone replacement was directly related to income and educational status and inversely related to age (all P < 0.001). Men undergoing radical prostatectomy and men with well-differentiated tumors were more likely to receive testosterone (all P < 0.001). On adjusted analysis, testosterone replacement therapy was not associated with overall or cancer-specific mortality or with the use of salvage hormone therapy.
CONCLUSIONS: In this population-based observational study of testosterone replacement therapy in men with a history of prostate cancer, treatment was not associated with increased overall or cancer-specific mortality. These findings suggest testosterone replacement therapy may be considered in men with a history of prostate cancer, but confirmatory prospective studies are needed.
BACKGROUND: The "July effect" refers to the phenomenon of adverse impacts on patient care arising from the changeover in medical staff that takes place during this month at academic medical centres in North America. There has been some evidence supporting the presence of the July effect, including data from surgical specialties. Uniformity of care, regardless of time of year, is required for patients undergoing major cancer surgery. We therefore sought to perform a population-level assessment for the presence of a July effect in this field.
METHODS: We used the Nationwide Inpatient Sample to abstract data on patients undergoing 1 of 8 major cancer surgeries at academic medical centres between Jan. 1, 1999, and Dec. 30, 2009. The primary outcomes examined were postoperative complications and in-hospital mortality. Univariate analyses and subsequently multivariate analyses, controlling for patient and hospital characteristics, were performed to identify whether the time of surgery was an independent predictor of outcome after major cancer surgery.
RESULTS: On univariate analysis, the overall postoperative complication rate, as well as genitourinary and hematologic complications specifically, was higher in July than the rest of the year. However, on multivariate analysis, only hematologic complications were significantly higher in July, with no difference in overall postoperative complication rate or in-hospital mortality for all 8 surgeries considered separately or together.
CONCLUSION: On the whole, the data confirm an absence of a July effect in patients undergoing major cancer surgery.
INTRODUCTION: Urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder (UCUB) is the most common malignancy of the urinary tract. We examined the distribution of site-specific metastases in patients with UCUB according to age and we assessed contemporary recommendations proposed by guidelines with regard to distant metastases.
METHODS: Patients with metastatic UCUB (mUCUB) were abstracted from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (1998-2007). Age was stratified into quartiles: ≤63, 64-72, 73-79 and ≥80 years. Cochran-Armitage trend test and multivariable logistic regression analysis tested the relationship between age and the rate of metastases. Finally, we identified patients at high risk of brain or bone metastases.
RESULTS: Within 7543 patients with mUCUB, 25%, 24%, 23%, 19%, 18% and 3% had lymph node, bone, urinary, lung and liver metastases, respectively. Overall, the rate of concomitant metastases was 29%. The rate of multiple metastatic sites decreased with increasing age (p < 0.001). This was confirmed in patients with lung, bone, liver, urinary system and brain metastases (all p ≤ 0.04). The rate of bone metastases was 15.0% in patients with exclusive abdominal metastases and 40.0% in patients with abdominal, thoracic and brain metastases. The rate of brain metastases was 1% in patients with exclusive abdominal metastases and 7% in patients with thoracic and bone metastases. Our findings are limited by the retrospective nature of the analyses.
CONCLUSIONS: We report a higher number of concomitant metastatic sites in young UCUB patients. Bone metastases are frequent in all patient groups, whereas brain metastases are common in UCUB patients with thoracic and/or bone metastases.
OBJECTIVE: To develop a novel postoperative prognostic tool, which attempts to integrate both pathological tumour stage and histopathological factors, for prediction of cancer-specific mortality (CSM) of squamous cell carcinoma of the penis (SCCP).
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with SCCP treated with inguinal lymph node dissection (ILND) or sentinel LN biopsy at a single institution were used for nomogram development and internal validation (n = 434), while a second cohort was used for external validation (n = 338). Multivariable Cox proportional hazards were used to examine the prognostic ability of patient age, a modified tumour staging that distinguishes between spongiosum and cavernosum body ingrowth tumours, a modified LN staging that integrates information on presence/absence of LN metastasis, extent of inguinal LN metastases, pelvic LN involvement, and extranodal involvement, and tumour grade. Model performance was quantified using measures of discrimination and calibration.
RESULTS: Overall, 36% of patients had positive LN metastases (n = 156). In univariable analyses, the modified tumour and LN staging systems were statistically significantly associated with CSM, and remained in the final model with a discrimination of 89% within internal validation, and 95% within external validation. Calibration was nearly perfect.
CONCLUSIONS: The newly developed model integrates important prognostic factors, which existing models do not consider. Its performance was highly accurate using measures of discrimination and calibration.