Publications

2021
Thomas H Dohlman, Rohan Bir Singh, and Reza Dana. 2021. “Advances in the Medical Management of Neurotrophic Keratitis.” Semin Ophthalmol, 36, 4, Pp. 335-340.Abstract
Neurotrophic Keratitis (NK) is a degenerative disorder of the cornea characterized by decreased or absent sensory corneal innervation, corneal epitheliopathy and impaired healing.The clinical presentation of NK can range from persistent epithelial defects to corneal perforation and management is often both challenging and protracted. Historically, the management of NK has consisted of non-specific strategies to facilitate corneal epithelial healing such as lubrication, bandage contact lenses and tarsorrhaphy. Recent advances in the development of therapeutics for NK have provided new and efficacious targeted strategies for its management.In this article, we review recombinant human nerve growth factor (Cenegermin), currently approved for clinical use in the United States and Europe, as well as other promising therapeutic options that are in pre-clinical development such as thymosine β4, connexin43 inhibitors, and artificial extracellular matrix components.
Maryam Tahvildari, Rohan Bir Singh, and Hajirah N Saeed. 2021. “Application of Artificial Intelligence in the Diagnosis and Management of Corneal Diseases.” Semin Ophthalmol, Pp. 1-8.Abstract
Diagnosis and treatment planning in ophthalmology heavily depend on clinical examination and advanced imaging modalities, which can be time-consuming and carry the risk of human error. Artificial intelligence (AI) and deep learning (DL) are being used in different fields of ophthalmology and in particular, when running diagnostics and predicting outcomes of anterior segment surgeries. This review will evaluate the recent developments in AI for diagnostics, surgical interventions, and prognosis of corneal diseases. It also provides a brief overview of the newer AI dependent modalities in corneal diseases.
Tanu Singh, Parul Ichhpujani, and Rohan Bir Singh. 2021. “First Line of Defense in COVID-19: Masks in Clinical Practice.” Asia Pac J Public Health, 33, 1, Pp. 147-149.
Yvonne Wang, Jimena Tatiana Carreno-Galeano, Rohan Bir Singh, Reza Dana, and Jia Yin. 2021. “Long-term Outcomes of Punctal Cauterization in the Management of Ocular Surface Diseases.” Cornea, 40, 2, Pp. 168-171.Abstract
PURPOSE: To evaluate the long-term outcomes of surgical occlusion of lacrimal puncta using thermal cautery in the management of ocular surface diseases. METHODS: We reviewed medical records of 80 consecutive patients from a single academic center who underwent punctal cauterization. Patient demographics, ocular history, symptoms, and signs of ocular surface diseases pre- and post-cauterization were recorded. RESULTS: A total of 80 patients (171 puncta) were included, with an average age of 59 years and a follow-up duration of 27 months. The most common ocular morbidity was ocular graft-versus-host disease (n = 36), followed by primary keratoconjunctivitis sicca (n = 15). Indications for punctal cauterization included plug loss (n = 51), difficulty in plug fitting (n = 11), plug-related complications (n = 6), recanalization of previous cauterization (n = 7), and severe ocular surface disease requiring permanent punctal closure (n = 4). After punctal cauterization, the percentage of eyes with severe (21%) and moderate (25%) dry eye decreased significantly (8% and 19% at 3 months and 6% and 17% at 12 months, P = 0.0006). Fifty-four percent of patients reported improvement in their symptoms. The rate of recanalization was 21% during the follow-up period. The use of topical corticosteroids was associated with higher recanalization rate. Associated complications were limited to temporary pain and swelling. CONCLUSIONS: Punctal cauterization is an effective modality in treating severe ocular surface diseases in patients who repeatedly lose punctal plugs, and it can be easily performed in a clinic setting without major complications. However, cauterization may need to be repeated in up to a quarter of cases because of recanalization.
Sachi Singhal, Rohan Bir Singh, and Rashmika Potdar. 2021. “Metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the colon: a conundrum in colorectal malignancies.” BMJ Case Rep, 14, 4.Abstract
Small-cell carcinoma of the colon is an extremely rare tumour, with poorly understood pathogenesis and unestablished treatment guidelines. The first case was documented in 1919, and only about 100 cases of this condition have been reported to this date. In this case report, we present a case of sigmoid squamous cell carcinoma that eventually led to bowel perforation and was diagnosed on histopathology after emergent surgical intervention. Additionally, we also review the incidence, epidemiology, pathogenesis, immunohistological markers, neogenomics and therapeutic strategies for the same.
Rohan Bir Singh, Tanvi Khera, Victoria Ly, Chhavi Saini, Wonkyung Cho, Sukhman Shergill, Kanwar Partap Singh, and Aniruddha Agarwal. 2021. “Ocular complications of perioperative anesthesia: a review.” Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol.Abstract
Ocular complications associated with anesthesia in ocular and non-ocular surgeries are rare adverse events which may present with clinical presentations vacillating between easily treatable corneal abrasions to more serious complication such as irreversible bilateral vision loss. In this review, we outline the different techniques of anesthetic delivery in ocular surgeries and highlight the incidence and etiologies of associated injuries. The changes in vision in non-ocular surgeries are mistaken for residual sedation or anesthetics, therefore require high clinical suspicion on part of the treating ophthalmologists, to ensure early diagnosis, adequate and swift management especially in surgeries such as cardiac, spine, head and neck, and some orthopedic procedures, that have a comparatively higher incidence of ocular complications. In this article, we review the literature for reports on the clinical incidence of different ocular complications associated with anesthesia in non-ocular surgeries and outline the current understanding of pathophysiological processes associated with these adverse events.
Rohan Bir Singh, Lingjia Liu, Sonia Anchouche, Ann Yung, Sharad K Mittal, Tomas Blanco, Thomas H Dohlman, Jia Yin, and Reza Dana. 2021. “Ocular redness - I: Etiology, pathogenesis, and assessment of conjunctival hyperemia.” Ocul Surf.Abstract
The conjunctival microvasculature consists of extensive branching of superficial and deep arterial systems and corresponding drainage pathways, and the translucent appearance of the conjunctiva allows for immediate visualization of changes in the circulation. Conjunctival hyperemia is caused by a pathological vasodilatory response of the microvasculature in response to inflammation due to a myriad of infectious and non-infectious etiologies. It is one of the most common contributors of ocular complaints that prompts visits to medical centers. Our understanding of these neurogenic and immune-mediated pathways has progressed over time and played a critical role in developing targeted novel therapies. Due to a multitude of underlying etiologies, the patients must be accurately diagnosed for the efficacious management of conjunctival hyperemia. The diagnostic techniques used for the grading of conjunctival hyperemia have also evolved from descriptive and subjective grading scales to more reliable computer-based objective grading scales.
Rohan Bir Singh, Lingjia Liu, Ann Yung, Sonia Anchouche, Sharad K Mittal, Tomas Blanco, Thomas H Dohlman, Jia Yin, and Reza Dana. 2021. “Ocular redness - II: Progress in development of therapeutics for the management of conjunctival hyperemia.” Ocul Surf, 21, Pp. 66-77.Abstract
Conjunctival hyperemia is one of the most common causes for visits to primary care physicians, optometrists, ophthalmologists, and emergency rooms. Despite its high incidence, the treatment options for patients with conjunctival hyperemia are restricted to over-the-counter drugs that provide symptomatic relief due to short duration of action, tachyphylaxis and rebound redness. As our understanding of the immunopathological pathways causing conjunctival hyperemia expands, newer therapeutic targets are being discovered. These insights have also contributed to the development of animal models for mimicking the pathogenic changes in microvasculature causing hyperemia. Furthermore, this progress has catalyzed the development of novel therapeutics that provide efficacious, long-term relief from conjunctival hyperemia with minimal adverse effects.
Rohan B Singh, Tomas Blanco, Sharad K Mittal, Hamid Alemi, Sunil K Chauhan, Yihe Chen, and Reza Dana. 2021. “Pigment Epithelium-Derived Factor Enhances the Suppressive Phenotype of Regulatory T Cells in a Murine Model of Dry Eye Disease.” Am J Pathol, 191, 4, Pp. 720-729.Abstract
Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is a widely expressed 50-kDa glycoprotein belonging to the serine protease inhibitor family, with well-established anti-inflammatory functions. Recently, we demonstrated the immunoregulatory role played by PEDF in dry eye disease (DED) by suppressing the maturation of antigen-presenting cells at the ocular surface following exposure to the desiccating stress. In this study, we evaluated the effect of PEDF on the immunosuppressive characteristics of regulatory T cells (Tregs), which are functionally impaired in DED. In the presence of PEDF, the in vitro cultures prevented proinflammatory cytokine (associated with type 17 helper T cells)-induced loss of frequency and suppressive phenotype of Tregs derived from normal mice. Similarly, PEDF maintained the in vitro frequency and enhanced the suppressive phenotype of Tregs derived from DED mice. On systemically treating DED mice with PEDF, moderately higher frequencies and significantly enhanced suppressive function of Tregs were observed in the draining lymphoid tissues, leading to the efficacious amelioration of the disease. Our results demonstrate that PEDF promotes the suppressive capability of Tregs and attenuates their type 17 helper T-cell-mediated dysfunction in DED, thereby playing a role in the suppression of DED.
Gagan Kalra, Parul Ichhpujani, Sahil Thakur, Rohan Bir Singh, Urvashi Sharma, and Suresh Kumar. 2021. “A pilot study for smartphone photography to assess bleb morphology and vasculature post-trabeculectomy.” Int Ophthalmol, 41, 2, Pp. 483-490.Abstract
PURPOSE: The current grading systems used for bleb morphology assessment in patients post-trabeculectomy are based on standardized slit-lamp photographs and anterior segment imaging devices. The lack of availability of these expensive and non-portable devices in resource-deficient settings is a significant deterrent in their widespread utilization for proper post-operative management. The rapidly evolving utilization of smartphone photography has significantly benefited diagnostics of posterior segment disorders and is now being increasingly utilized for monitoring anterior segment pathologies as well as post-surgical course. In this study, we study a novel use of smartphones for bleb photography for assessing the morphological characteristics as vascularity and microcysts. METHODS: In this pilot, observational study, we compared the trabeculectomy bleb images of five subjects, obtained by iPhone X (dual lens) and iPhone 6S (single lens). We captured two image sets with both smartphones first with a focussed torchlight and then with a built-in flash video light. RESULTS: The images resulting from the newer iPhone X were substantially superior than those from iPhone 6S. For the 12-megapixel dual-camera set-up on the iPhone X, the 1 × lens resulted in better images than the 2 × lens with contrast and overall clarity of the area of interest. While the macro-lens attachment had promising results at 1 × zoom, there is no added advantage of the macro-lens attachment as it resulted in considerable loss of image quality at twice the zoom. Using a 20 D lens helped attain higher magnification and better framing as it reduced the focussing distance needed to get sharp images. The images obtained from both smartphones were of higher quality when illuminated from an external source when compared to the native iPhone flash due to even exposure and fewer autofocus artefacts. CONCLUSION: Analyses of all image sets showed that the current generation in-built camera app on IOS and newer iPhone camera optics resulted in high-quality images of the ocular surface with high magnification without any loss in clarity.
Nai-Wen Fan, Thomas H Dohlman, William Foulsham, Matthew McSoley, Rohan Bir Singh, Yihe Chen, and Reza Dana. 2021. “The role of Th17 immunity in chronic ocular surface disorders.” Ocul Surf, 19, Pp. 157-168.Abstract
Th17 cells have been implicated in the pathogenesis of numerous inflammatory and autoimmune conditions. At the ocular surface, Th17 cells have been identified as key effector cells in chronic ocular surface disease. Evidence from murine studies indicates that following differentiation and expansion, Th17 cells migrate from the lymphoid tissues to the eye, where they release inflammatory cytokines including, but not limited to, their hallmark cytokine IL-17A. As the acute phase subsides, a population of long-lived memory Th17 cells persist, which predispose hosts both to chronic inflammation and severe exacerbations of disease; of great interest is the small subset of Th17/1 cells that secrete both IL-17A and IFN-γ in acute-on-chronic disease exacerbation. Over the past decade, substantial progress has been made in deciphering how Th17 cells interact with the immune and neuroimmune pathways that mediate chronic ocular surface disease. Here, we review (i) the evidence for Th17 immunity in chronic ocular surface disease, (ii) regulatory mechanisms that constrain the Th17 immune response, and (iii) novel therapeutic strategies targeting Th17 cells.
2020
Rohan Bir Singh, Anna Marmalidou, Afsaneh Amouzegar, Yihe Chen, and Reza Dana. 2020. “Animal models of high-risk corneal transplantation: A comprehensive review.” Exp Eye Res, 198, Pp. 108152.Abstract
Over the past century, corneal transplantation has become the most commonly performed allogeneic solid tissue transplantation. Although more than 80% of the corneal transplantations have favorable outcomes, immune-mediated rejection continues to be the major cause of failure in well over 50% of graft recipients that have inflamed and vascularized host beds. Over the past two decades, the progress in our understanding of the immunological pathways that mediate graft rejection has aided in the development of novel therapeutic strategies. In order to successfully test the efficacy of these interventions, it is essential to model the immunological processes occurring as a consequence of corneal transplantation. Herein, we have comprehensively reviewed the established animal models used for replicating the immunopathological processes causing graft rejection in high-risk corneal transplantation settings. We have also discussed the practical and technical differences, as well as biological and immunological variations in different animal models.
Parul Ichhpujani, Tanu Singh, Sahil Thakur, Rohan Bir Singh, and Suresh Kumar. 2020. “Assessing glaucoma deterioration using Spaeth/Richman contrast sensitivity test.” Ther Adv Ophthalmol, 12, Pp. 2515841420977412.Abstract
Purpose: To assess changes in the central and peripheral contrast sensitivity in severe primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients using a computer-based Spaeth/Richman contrast sensitivity test (SPARCS) over a period of 24 months. Methods: Our pilot, observational study included 15 patients (30 eyes) with severe POAG. Visual acuity, intraocular pressure, number of anti-glaucoma drugs, visual fields, and SPARCS score were recorded at first visit and at 12 and 24 months. Results: We observed changes in mean deviation (MD) from -19.37 ± 5.04 to -20.63 ± 4.07, mean pattern standard deviation (PSD) from 11.49 ± 2.61 to 11.35 ± 2.01, and mean SPARCS score from 54.97 ± 15.66 to 53.50 ± 16.42. We found no statistically significant difference between visual field parameters and SPARCS scores associated with the number or type of prescribed anti-glaucoma drugs. Spearman's correlation coefficient of SPARCS at baseline (SPARCS1) MD at baseline (MD1) was 0.274 ( = 0.142) and SPARCS1 PSD at baseline (PSD1) was -0.163 ( = 0.389). The correlation coefficient between SPARCS at 12 months (SPARCS2) MD (MD2) at the same time point was computed to be 0.391 ( = 0.03), whereas SPARCS2 PSD at 12 months was -0.212 ( = 0.262). Similarly, we found the coefficient to be 0.336 ( = 0.069) for SPARCS3 (SPARCS at 24 months) MD3 (MD at 24 months) and 0.242 ( = 0.197) for SPARCS3 PSD3 (PSD at 24 months). Correlation coefficients between SPARCS1/2, SPARCS1/3, MD1/2, MD1/3 PSD1/2, and PSD1/3 were 0.856, 0.865, 0.748, 0.722, 0.497, and 0.562, respectively ( < 0.001). MD changed by 9.46% ± 12.73%, PSD by 0.64% ± 14.03%, and average SPARCS by 3.31% ± 12.73% over 24 months. Conclusion: The data from our study indicate the utilitarian application of SPARCS, an inexpensive and readily available tool for monitoring functional deterioration in cases with advanced glaucomatous damage, especially in resource-poor settings. Furthermore, it is a useful and reliable alternative to the imaging modalities where retinal nerve fiber layer measurement can be erroneous in advanced cases secondary to the floor effect.
Rohan Bir Singh, Ann Yung, Giulia Coco, Shruti Sinha, Thomas H Dohlman, Jia Yin, and Reza Dana. 2020. “Efficacy and retention of silicone punctal plugs for treatment of dry eye in patients with and without ocular graft-versus-host-disease.” Ocul Surf, 18, 4, Pp. 731-735.Abstract
PURPOSE: To examine the retention rates and efficacy of silicone punctal plugs for the treatment of dry eye disease (DED) in patients with ocular graft-versus-host-disease (oGVHD) in comparison to dry eye disease due to non-oGVHD etiologies. METHODS: We reviewed the case-records of 864 consecutive patients with DED who were symptomatic despite topical therapy and had silicone punctal plugs placed over an eight-year- period at a single academic center. We compared plug retention rates in oGVHD and non-oGVHD DED patients using Kaplan-Meier analyses. Furthermore, we analyzed changes in objective ocular surface parameters including tear breakup time (TBUT), Schirmer's test, and corneal fluorescein staining (CFS) score in plug-retaining patients at two-, six- and twelve-month follow-up. RESULTS: Median age of dry eye patients was 58 years, and 606 (70%) of patients were women. In the cohort, 264 (31%) patients were diagnosed with oGVHD. Plug retention was significantly lower in oGVHD-DED patients compared to non-oGVHD-DED patients (p < 0.0001). We observed significant improvement in CFS scores in plug retaining-oGVHD and non-oGVHD DED patients at all time points. Tear break-up time was significantly prolonged at six- and twelve-months follow-up in non-oGVHD patients, whereas significant change in TBUT in oGVHD patients was recorded only at twelve months post plug placement. Schirmer's score improved significantly in plug retaining-non-oGVHD DED patients at six- and twelve-months follow-up, however no significant change was observed in Schirmer's score in oGVHD DED patients. CONCLUSIONS: An improvement in ocular surface disease parameters was observed in both plug-retaining oGVHD and non-oGVHD DED patients. However, a majority of oGVHD DED patients spontaneously lost their punctal plugs within 90 days of placement. Therefore, regular follow-up after plug placement is recommended to detect plug loss and ensure adequate disease control.
Rohan Bir Singh, Shuyan Zhu, Ann Yung, Thomas H Dohlman, Reza Dana, and Jia Yin. 2020. “Efficacy of cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive in the management of corneal thinning and perforation due to microbial keratitis.” Ocul Surf, 18, 4, Pp. 795-800.Abstract
PURPOSE: Report the efficacy of cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive (CTA) application in the management of corneal thinning and perforations associated with microbial keratitis. METHODS: A retrospective review of consecutive patients who underwent CTA application for corneal thinning and perforation secondary to microbiologically proven infectious keratitis between 2001 and 2018 at a single center. We defined successful CTA application as an intact globe without tectonic surgical intervention. RESULTS: The cohort included 67 patients, and 37 presented with corneal perforation while 30 had corneal thinning. The perforation/thinning was central/paracentral in 43 eyes and peripheral in 23 eyes. The underlying infectious etiologies were monomicrobial in 42 cases (35 bacterial, 3 fungal, 2 viral, and 2 acanthamoeba cases) and polymicrobial in 25 cases (22 polybacterial cases and 3 cases with a combination of Gram positive bacteria and fungus). The median duration of glue retention was 29 days. The CTA success rate was 73%, 64%, and 44% at 10, 30, and 180 days, respectively. CTA application appears more successful in monomicrobial (vs. polymicrobial) and Gram positive bacterial (vs. Gram negative) keratitis but the differences are statistically non-significant. The location of perforation/thinning and the use of topical corticosteroid were not associated with CTA failure. CONCLUSION: CTA was moderately effective in restoring globe integrity in severe corneal thinning and perforation secondary to microbial keratitis in the short term. However the majority of patients require tectonic surgical intervention within 6 months. CTA application success is not significantly associated with the location of thinning/perforation or the use of topical corticosteroid.
Qulu Zheng, Forrest K Jones, Sarah V Leavitt, Lawson Ung, Alain B Labrique, David H Peters, Elizabeth C Lee, and Andrew S Azman. 2020. “HIT-COVID, a global database tracking public health interventions to COVID-19.” Sci Data, 7, 1, Pp. 286.Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has sparked unprecedented public health and social measures (PHSM) by national and local governments, including border restrictions, school closures, mandatory facemask use and stay at home orders. Quantifying the effectiveness of these interventions in reducing disease transmission is key to rational policy making in response to the current and future pandemics. In order to estimate the effectiveness of these interventions, detailed descriptions of their timelines, scale and scope are needed. The Health Intervention Tracking for COVID-19 (HIT-COVID) is a curated and standardized global database that catalogues the implementation and relaxation of COVID-19 related PHSM. With a team of over 200 volunteer contributors, we assembled policy timelines for a range of key PHSM aimed at reducing COVID-19 risk for the national and first administrative levels (e.g. provinces and states) globally, including details such as the degree of implementation and targeted populations. We continue to maintain and adapt this database to the changing COVID-19 landscape so it can serve as a resource for researchers and policymakers alike.
Akash Kartik, Divya Garg, and Rohan Bir Singh. 2020. “Implications of Reduced Health Care Services for Cancer Patients in India and Similar Resource-Limited Health Care Systems During COVID-19 Pandemic.” Asia Pac J Public Health, 32, 5, Pp. 287-288.
Rohan Bir Singh and Sahil Thakur. 2020. “Nightclub Photokeratitis.” Ophthalmology, 127, 2, Pp. 239.
Rohan Bir Singh, Tomas Blanco, Sharad K Mittal, Yukako Taketani, Sunil K Chauhan, Yihe Chen, and Reza Dana. 2020. “Pigment Epithelium-derived Factor secreted by corneal epithelial cells regulates dendritic cell maturation in dry eye disease.” Ocul Surf, 18, 3, Pp. 460-469.Abstract
PURPOSE: In this study, we quantify Pigment Epithelium-derived Factor (PEDF) secreted by corneal epithelial cells and evaluate its immunomodulatory functions in a murine model of dry eye disease (DED). METHODS: We induced DED in female C57BL/6 mice using a controlled environment chamber for 14 days. We quantified mRNA expression of Serpinf1 gene and PEDF protein synthesis by corneal epithelial cells (CEpCs) using RT-PCR and ELISA. CEpCs from normal or DED mice were cultured with IFNγ-stimulated-dendritic cells (DCs) for 24 h, and expression of MHC-II and CD86 by DCs was determined using flow cytometry. Next, we either added recombinant PEDF (rPEDF) or anti-PEDF antibody to co-culture, and DC expression of the above maturation markers was quantified. Lastly, we treated DED mice with either topical rPEDF, anti-PEDF Ab or murine serum albumin (MSA), and DC maturation, expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and DED severity were investigated. RESULTS: Serpinf1 mRNA expression and PEDF protein production levels by CEpCs were upregulated in DED. CEpCs from DED mice exhibited an enhanced suppressive effect on the expression of MHC-II and CD86 by DCs, compared to normal mice. This effect was abolished by blocking endogenous PEDF with anti-PEDF Ab or enhanced by supplementing with rPEDF. Treatment with anti-PEDF antibody blocked the effect of endogenous-PEDF and increased DC maturation, expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in conjunctivae, and exacerbated disease severity in DED mice. Conversely, topical rPEDF enhanced the suppressive effect of endogenous PEDF on DC maturation, decreased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in conjunctivae, and reduced disease severity. CONCLUSIONS: The results from our study elucidate the role of PEDF in impeding DC maturation, and suppression of ocular surface inflammation, explicating a promising therapeutic potential of PEDF in limiting the corneal epitheliopathy as a consequence of DED.
Shruti Sinha, Rohan Bir Singh, Thomas H Dohlman, Yukako Taketani, Jia Yin, and Reza Dana. 2020. “Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated With Corneal Perforation in Chronic Ocular Graft-Versus-Host-Disease.” Cornea.Abstract
PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with corneal perforation in patients with chronic ocular graft-versus-host disease (oGVHD). METHODS: We reviewed the case records of 405 patients diagnosed with chronic oGVHD over 8 years at a single academic center and assessed the prevalence of corneal perforation in the cohort. We reviewed patient demographics, indication for and type of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), time elapsed between HSCT and perforation, and clinical characteristics including oGVHD severity scores, ocular comorbidities, and topical medications at the time of perforation. Data were analyzed to determine the characteristics of patients with corneal perforation and establish the risk factors. RESULTS: Of the 405 patients with chronic oGVHD, 15 (3.7%) developed a corneal perforation. The mean age of patients at the time of perforation was 64 ± 11 years and 10 (67%) were men. The median time to corneal perforation was 3.3 years post-HSCT. Although perforation occurred unilaterally in all cases, 44% had epithelial defects and 38% had stromal abnormalities in the contralateral eye. Of the patients with corneal perforation, 9 (60%) had a National Institute of Health oGVHD severity score of 2 and 6 (40%) had a score of 3. Patients with chronic oGVHD on antiglaucoma drops had a significantly higher risk of corneal perforation (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Corneal perforation is a rare but vision-threatening complication of chronic oGVHD. Our study emphasizes the need for frequent and long-term follow-up of patients with oGVHD regardless of the severity of disease. In particular, patients with chronic oGVHD on topical antiglaucoma medications should be monitored closely due to a higher risk for corneal perforation.

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