Ocular redness - I: Etiology, pathogenesis, and assessment of conjunctival hyperemia


Rohan Bir Singh, Lingjia Liu, Sonia Anchouche, Ann Yung, Sharad K Mittal, Tomas Blanco, Thomas H Dohlman, Jia Yin, and Reza Dana. 2021. “Ocular redness - I: Etiology, pathogenesis, and assessment of conjunctival hyperemia.” Ocul Surf.


The conjunctival microvasculature consists of extensive branching of superficial and deep arterial systems and corresponding drainage pathways, and the translucent appearance of the conjunctiva allows for immediate visualization of changes in the circulation. Conjunctival hyperemia is caused by a pathological vasodilatory response of the microvasculature in response to inflammation due to a myriad of infectious and non-infectious etiologies. It is one of the most common contributors of ocular complaints that prompts visits to medical centers. Our understanding of these neurogenic and immune-mediated pathways has progressed over time and played a critical role in developing targeted novel therapies. Due to a multitude of underlying etiologies, the patients must be accurately diagnosed for the efficacious management of conjunctival hyperemia. The diagnostic techniques used for the grading of conjunctival hyperemia have also evolved from descriptive and subjective grading scales to more reliable computer-based objective grading scales.