Chan RY. Do credit momentum policies through the 15 to finish improve academic progression and completion of low-income, first-generation students? Evidence from a college promise program. Research in Higher Education. 2022 :1-33. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Credit momentum policies, or performance-based financial aid policies, have become increasingly popular among policymakers seeking to improve degree completion rates. This paper examines Indiana’s 30-credit-hour completion policy on first-time, full-time students who receive the Twenty-First Century Scholars (TFCS) Promise Program. Using administrative data from the Indiana University’s University Institutional Research and Reporting, representing 7842 low-income students who enrolled shortly before the policy was implemented, I use a difference-in-differences framework to explore the heterogeneous treatment effects of a credit (academic) momentum policy that was supported by the Complete College America 15 to Finish initiative on the academic progression and completion of promise scholarship recipients at Indiana University Bloomington and Indiana University-Purdue University, Indianapolis, compared to non-TFCS Pell recipients from the Fall 2011 cohorts through the Fall 2014 cohorts. I find some evidence to suggest that credit momentum policies are associated with small increases in cumulative credits and grades but had no effect on degree completion status (Year 4 Graduation Status, Year 6 Graduation Status). I also find evidence that TFCS female and first-generation recipients responded positively to the policy change but find no evidence that the policy affects promise recipients differently by race/ethnicity. While consistent with prior work on credit momentum, these findings are among the first to explore the academic performance of college promise recipients. Together, these findings indicate that credit momentum policies may improve academic progression and completion for low-income, first-generation students who receive a promise scholarship. Implications for policy and research are discussed.
Chan RY. Understanding international joint and dual degree programs: Opportunities and challenges during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Comparative & International Higher Education. 2021;13 (5) :86-107. Publisher's VersionAbstract
This empirical article examines the policies, perspectives, and practices of building and developing cross-border and transnational higher education (TNHE) programs, with special attention given to the international joint and dual degree programs in North America and Asia. Specifically, this paper reviews the historical, political, and social dimensions of two international collaborative academic degree programs between the United States and Mainland China using Indiana University-Purdue University, Indianapolis (IUPUI) and Sun Yat-set University (SYSU) as the case study. Findings suggest that IUPUI’s most cited challenge with SYSU concerns alignment with general education requirements. On the other hand, SYSU’s biggest challenge with IUPUI concerns language and cultural differences. This article offers five recommendations for teacher-scholars, policymakers, and advanced practitioners interested in developing, designing, and implementing dual degree programs during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. Implications for future research on and applications and practices for TNHE programs are discussed.
Bista K, Allen RM, Chan RY. Impacts of COVID-19 on International Students and the Future of Student Mobility: International Perspectives and Experiences. 1st ed. London: Routledge; 2021 pp. 232. Publisher's VersionAbstract

This volume uses case studies and students' lived experiences to document the impacts of coronavirus (COVID-19) on international students and explore future challenges and opportunities for student mobility within higher education.

Responding to the growing need for new insights and perspectives to improve higher education policy and practice in the era of COVID-19, this text analyses the changing roles and responsibilities of institutions and international education leaders post-2020. Initial chapters highlight key issues for students that have arisen as a result of the global health crisis such as learning, well-being, and the changed emotional, legal, and financial implications of study abroad. Subsequent chapters confront potential longer-term implications of students’ experiences during COVID-19, and provide critical reflection on internationalization and the opportunities that COVID-19 has presented for tertiary education systems around the world to learn from one another.

This timely volume will benefit researchers, academics, and educators with an interest in online teaching and e-learning, curriculum design, and more specifically those involved with international and comparative education. Those involved with educational policy and practice, specifically related to pandemic education, will also benefit from this volume.

Chan RY, Bista K, Allen RM. Online Teaching and Learning in Higher Education during COVID-19: International Perspectives and Experiences. 1st ed. London: Routledge; 2021 pp. 266. Publisher's VersionAbstract

This timely volume documents the immediate, global impacts of the coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) on teaching and learning in higher education. Focusing on student and faculty experiences of online and distance education, the text provides reflections on novel initiatives, unexpected challenges, and lessons learned.

Responding to the urgent need to better understand online teaching and learning during the COVID-19 pandemic, this book investigates how the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) impacted students, faculty, and staff experiences during the COVID-19 lockdown. Chapters initially look at the challenges faced by universities and educators in their attempts to overcome the practical difficulties involved in developing effective online programming and pedagogy. The text then builds on these insights to highlight student experiences and consider issues of social connection and inequality. Finally, the volume looks forward to asking what lessons COVID-19 can offer for the future development of online and distance learning in higher education.

This engaging volume will benefit researchers, academics, and educators with an interest in online teaching and eLearning, curriculum design, and more, specifically those involved with the digitalization of higher education. The text will also support further discussion and reflection around pedagogical transformation, international teaching and learning, and educational policy more broadly.

Chan RY. The Professionalization of Fundraising: A Transcript Analysis of CASE President Emeritus Peter McEachin Buchanan (1935-1991) on U.S. Higher Education Philanthropy . European Research Network On Philanthropy (ERNOP). 2020;(9) :45-58.Abstract
Using oral history method and narrative inquiry, this paper utilizes archival sources to examine (1) the historical, social, and political forces in higher education philanthropy that has contributed to the development of Council for Advancement and Support of Education (CASE) and (2) the history of philanthropy and fundraising in shaping the institutionalization and professionalization process of institutional advancement. Specifically, this paper analyzed interview transcript of CASE president emeritus Peter McEachin Buchanan extracted from the American Foundations Oral History Project, 1989-1993 at Indiana University Bloomington’s Center for Documentary Research and Practice (CDRP). Transcript data was analyzed through the NVivo 11.0 software to identify key terms related to the professionalization of higher education philanthropy in conceptualizing how fundraisers have experienced, witnessed, and enacted the university advancement profession. The findings suggest that the CASE has played a significant role in the inquiry of higher education philanthropy, and more broadly, the professionalization of fundraisers during the 1970s and 1980s.
Chan RY. How Does the 15 to Finish Initiative Affect Academic Outcomes of Low-Income, First-Generation Students? Evidence from a College Promise Program in Indiana. Department of Educational Leadership and Policy Studies, Indiana University Bloomington. 2020.Abstract

As the cost of college tuition has increased, policymakers and practitioners have begun to examine the proliferation of college promise programs (i.e., tuition-free grant programs, debt free college programs) across the United States. These initiatives typically aim to lower or eliminate the cost of college attendance and in doing so increase college completion among underrepresented groups: predominantly low-income, first-generation, students of color. While several states and cities have announced or launched promise programs designed to improve college retention and completion, scholars of education policy and practitioners know relatively little about the implications of these initiatives, and whether certain policies or procedures are best suited to specific contexts.

The purpose of this study is to determine what effect a statewide 30-credit hour annual completion policy had on the academic outcomes of college promise program recipients at two 4-year public research universities, Indiana University Bloomington (IUB) and Indiana University-Purdue University, Indianapolis (IUPUI). The policy, which has been emulated in many states, aims to encourage students to take 15 credits per semester (or 30 credits per year) and thereby remain on course to complete a bachelor’s degree in 4 years (Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, 2015; Lumina Foundation, 2017; SHEEO, 2008; U.S. Office of the Press Secretary, 2009). While the new legislation adopted in Indiana is an attempt by the Indiana Commission for Higher Education (ICHE) to improve college completion and on-time graduation of students, very few scholar-practitioners, aside from a few within the University of Hawaii system and Complete College America (CCA), have provided evidence that attempting to complete 30 credits per academic year significantly improves academic performance and subsequently, degree completion rates among underrepresented students. This study examines the implementation of and subsequent policy change to the early-commitment college promise program, Indiana Twenty-First Century Scholarship (TFCS) Program.

Using administrative data from the Indiana University’s University Institutional Research and Reporting (UIRR) office, representing 7,842 low-income students who enrolled shortly before and adopt the policy was implemented, this observational study employs a quasi-experimental, difference-in-differences (DiD) approach to explore the impact of the Indiana Code Title 21 (IC-21-12-6-7) (30 credit hour annual completion policy) on students’ academic outcomes. Specifically, this quantitative study examines the heterogenous treatment effects of this policy change on the academic performance (e.g., cumulative credit hours accumulated, cumulative grade point average [GPA], degree completion status) of Indiana TFCS recipients at IUB and IUPUI, compared to non-TFCS Pell recipients from the same time period (Fall 2011 through Fall 2014 cohorts). The study will be guided by the following research questions: (1) Did the 30-credit hour annual completion policy (15 to Finish) achieve its intended effects: increasing credit accumulation, improving student progress and increasing graduation rates? and (2) Are any of the identified policy effects moderated by demographic factors (race, gender, generation) and pre-college characteristics (high school GPA, SAT score)? Does the policy appear to have differential effects for various types of students?

Results suggest that the 30-credit hour annual completion policy showed a positive significant effect on credits and grades but had no effect on degree completion status at IUB (a small town, primarily residential, more selective, flagship research university). In addition, the study found a significant interaction effect for Gender and Generation Status when accounting for pre- and post-policy groups. Specifically, Gender yielded significant interaction effects on TFCS recipient academic outcomes in terms of Year 1 Cumulative Credits, Year 2 Cumulative Credits, and Year 1 Cumulative GPA, suggesting that female students at IUB appear to have significantly benefited from the 30-credit hour annual completion policy. The policy had no interaction effect on low-income, first-generation students enrolled at IUPUI (an urban, primarily nonresidential, moderately selective research university) for both the academic progress continuous variables and the college completion status binary variables. These findings demonstrate that the policy, which was related to a broader, national 15 to Finish initiative did not produce its intended effect, nor did it have any adverse consequences for low-income, first-generation students.

The results of this policy evaluation research have important implications for policymakers, politicians, university administrators, and advanced practitioners who seek to design college promise programs for completion. This research contributes to the empirical literature on state policies aimed at increasing student progression and completion. Moreover, this study extends beyond the CCA’s 15 to Finish initiative and highlight the broader effects of required academic performance policies on student success. The study will inform public debate about and adjustments of the policy and will also highlight several directions for future research.

Chan RY. Book Review, Taking It to the Streets: The Role of Scholarship in Advocacy and Advocacy in Scholarship (2018) by Laura W. Perna. Journal of Higher Education Outreach and Engagement (JHEOE). 2019;23 (3) :230-234.Abstract

With Taking It to the Streets: The Role of Scholarship in Advocacy and Advocacy in Scholarship, higher education scholar Laura W. Perna provides a comprehensive introduction to the central issues affecting higher education policy advocacy between academic researchers and policymakers. The seventeen chapters of this edited volume present narratives written by nationally and internationally recognized leaders that explore the professional pathways and methodological approaches used by faculty to advance diversity, equity, and inclusion in higher education. The book arrives at a pivotal time for the field of higher education during which scholars have been increasingly criticized for their inability to impact real-world policy problems with their policy research scholarship (Gordon da Cruz, 2018; Hillman, Tandberg, & Sponsler, 2015; Post, Ward, Long, & Saltmarsh, 2016; Tandberg et al., 2018).

Chan RY. Higher Education as a Field of Study: An Analysis of 495 Academic Programs, Research Centers, and Institutes across 48 Countries Worldwide. In: Glocal Education in Practice: Teaching, Researching, and Citizenship. Vol. 17. Sofia, Bulgaria: Bulgarian Comparative Education Society ; 2019. pp. 124-131.Abstract
The field of higher education studies has expanded dramatically in recent years. Notably, research centers/institutes and academic programs devoted to the field of higher education (tertiary education) has increased worldwide to now include peer-reviewed journals, books, reports and publications. Utilizing secondary data from 277 higher education programs, 217 research centers/institutes, and 280 journals and publications from Higher Education: A Worldwide Inventory of Research Centers, Academic Programs, and Journals and Publications (2014), this paper examines the policy actors and scholars engaged in higher education studies across 48 countries. The finding of this study suggests that people living the world’s wealthiest countries occupies a position of significant privilege and power with regards to access to higher education research, analysis, and trained human capital. As higher education research centers, programs, and journals around the world expand their understanding of their place in a wider global network of similar entities, supporting one another and particularly under-resourced colleagues around the world deserves increasing attention.
Chan RY, Tang H-HH, Delaney P. The Rise of Private Supplementary Tutoring: Contemporary Issues and International Perspectives on Shadow Education in China. In: International and Comparative Education Contemporary Issues and Debates. London: Routledge ; 2018. pp. 61-73. Publisher's VersionAbstract
This chapter explores the determinants of private tutoring participation not only for education policy-makers and university planners but also for parents and students. It aims to an ongoing policy discussion on the expansion and prevalence of shadow education and its implications for high-stakes testing and National College Entrance Examination (NCCE) preparation. As long as the Hong Kong Diploma of Secondary Education Examination (HKDSE) and the Gaokao serve as the principal gatekeeper to Chinese higher education institutions, parents and students will continue to be motivated to pay for shadow education activities in the years ahead. The chapter argues that private supplementary tutoring (PST) plays a positive role in raising students' learning outcomes outside of the mainstream education system. However, this review also suggests that the inability to access high-quality private tutors can place lower-class students at a far greater disadvantage on NCCE scores compared to affluent urban students in China. Furthermore, high-income families can often afford greater quantities of PST.
Alphin HC, Lavine J, Chan RY. Disability and Equity in Higher Education Accessibility. Hershey, PA: IGI Global; 2017 pp. 349. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Disability and Equity in Higher Education Accessibility is a comprehensive reference source for the latest scholarly material on emerging methods and trends in disseminating knowledge in higher education, despite traditional hindrances. Featuring extensive coverage on relevant topics such as higher education policies, electronic resources, and inclusion barriers, this publication is ideally designed for educators, academics, students, and researchers interested in expanding their knowledge of disability-inclusive global education.
Alphin HC, Chan RY, Lavine J. The Future of Accessibility in International Higher Education. Hershey, PA: IGI Global; 2017 pp. 321. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Education is the foundation to almost all successful lives, and it is important that a high level of schooling be available on a global scale. Studying the trends in accessibility in education will allow educators to improve their own teaching techniques, as well as expand their influence to more remote areas in the world. The Future of Accessibility in International Higher Education is a comprehensive reference source for the latest scholarly material on emerging methods and trends in disseminating knowledge in university settings. Featuring extensive coverage on relevant topics such as e-learning, economic perspectives, and educational technology, this publication is ideally designed for educators, academics, students, and researchers interested in expanding their knowledge of global education.
Chan RY. Understanding the Purpose of Higher Education: An Analysis of the Economic and Social Benefits for Completing a College Degree. Journal of Education Policy, Planning and Administration (JEPPA). 2016;6 (5) :1-40. understanding_the_purpose_aim_function_of_higher_education.pdf
Chan RY. Studying Philanthropy and Fundraising in the Field of Higher Education: A Proposed Conceptual Model. In: Facilitating Higher Education Growth through Fundraising and Philanthropy. Hershey, PA: IGI Global ; 2016. pp. 1-27. Publisher's VersionAbstract

Colleges and universities are historic institutions in the U.S. that have sprung up since the founding of Harvard College in 1636. Though their evolution and development is quite simple, the involvement of numerous organizations and groups with philanthropy and higher education is quite complex. Utilizing resource dependency theory and institutional theory, this chapter reviews the historical, sociological, and organizational overview of the practices of philanthropy as it relates to American higher education. Two conceptual frameworks are developed and proposed by the author for teacher-scholars and advanced practitioners seeking to conduct formal research on institutional advancement in higher education. The paper argues that the fundraising professionals (e.g., board of trustees, the president, development officers) role on securing major resources and private gifts within the organization and field level is the result of coercion, imitation, and conformity to institutional rule, institutional isomorphism, and normatively based decision making in higher education.

Rumbley LE, Altbach PG, Stanfield DA, Shimmi Y, de Gayardon A, Chan RY. Higher Education: A Worldwide Inventory of Research Centers, Academic Programs, and Journals and Publications. 3rd ed. Bonn, Germany: Lemmens Media; 2014.Abstract
This book examines the unique global "inventory" of higher Education research centers, degree-granting academic programs focused on higher education, and academic journals (and a small number of other relevant publications) publishing on higher education.
Chan RY. Can China keep rising in the age of globalization?: Chinese students’ learning and living experience at two “world-class” research universities in East Asia. International Journal of Chinese Education. 2014;3 (1) :74-108. Publisher's VersionAbstract

“World-class” research universities have long been a priority in the educational, corporate, and political spheres in China. With the establishment of the Outline of China’s National Plan for Medium and Long Term Education Reform and Development (2010-2020), China seeks to develop globally competitive research universities that are based on position in the global rankings. In this article, the author examines the role of college environment (e.g., academic, campus, interpersonal) on college student’s learning and development relative to China’s quest for “world-class” universities. Utilizing Jamil Salmi’s (2009) theoretical framework of ‘world-class universities,’ this article introduces Chan’s conceptual framework of ‘Environment-Learning-Resources (elr)’ to suggest how the college environments influence the imposition of structure, processes, and student learning at emerging global research universities in mainland China.

Macfarlane B, Chan RY. The last judgement: exploring intellectual leadership in higher education through academic obituaries. Studies in Higher Education. 2014;39 (2) :294-306. Publisher's VersionAbstract

The literature on leadership in higher education is focused mainly on senior academic leaders with managerial roles. It largely excludes informal and distributed forms of intellectual leadership offered by full professors among others. This article explores the concept of intellectual leadership using academic obituaries. A total of 63 obituaries were collected from Times Higher Education published between 2008 and 2010. These identify the importance of personal characteristics and academic achievements in the formation of reputation. Four elements of intellectual leadership are suggested, linked to academic obituaries: a passion for transformation, possessing a balance of personal virtues, a commitment to service, and overcoming adversity. Despite the limitations of obituaries, it is argued that they provide a valuable and under-utilised ‘last judgement’ on intellectual leadership.