Higher Global Diet Quality Score Is Associated with Less 4-Year Weight Gain in US Women


Teresa T Fung, Yanping Li, Sabri Bromage, Shilpa N Bhupathiraju, Carolina Batis, Wafaie Fawzi, Michelle D Holmes, Meir Stampfer, Frank B Hu, Megan Deitchler, and Walter C Willett. 2021. “Higher Global Diet Quality Score Is Associated with Less 4-Year Weight Gain in US Women.” J Nutr, 151, Supplement_2, Pp. 162S-167S. Publisher's Version


BACKGROUND: We have developed a simple and globally applicable tool, the Global Diet Quality Score (GDQS), to measure diet quality. OBJECTIVES: To test the utility of the GDQS, we examined the associations of the GDQS with weight change and risk of obesity in US women. METHODS: Health, lifestyle, and diet information were collected from women (n = 68,336) in the Nurses' Health Study II (aged 27-44 y in 1991) through repeated questionnaires (1991-2015). The GDQS has 25 food groups (maximum = 49 points) and scoring higher points reflects a healthier diet. The association between GDQS change in 4-y intervals and concurrent weight change was computed with linear models adjusted for confounders. RESULTS: Mean ± SD weight gain across 4-y periods was 1.68 ± 6.26 kg. A >5-point improvement in GDQS was associated with -1.13 kg (95% CI: -1.19, -0.77 kg) weight gain compared with a score change of <±2 points. For each 5-point increase, weight gain was 0.83 kg less for age <50 y compared with 0.71 kg less for age ≥50 y (P-interaction < 0.05). A >5-point score decrease was associated with 1.13 kg (95% CI: 1.04, 1.22 kg) more weight gain in women aged <50 y and 0.81 kg more (95% CI: 0.63, 0.98 kg) in women aged ≥50 y. Compared with little change in score, obesity RR was 0.77 (95% CI: 0.74, 0.81) for a >5-point increase and 1.32 (95% CI: 1.26, 1.37) for a >5-point decrease. Risk of obesity did not differ by age. Compared with other diet quality scores, the Alternate Healthy Eating Index-2010 had somewhat stronger associations than the GDQS (P < 0.05) but the GDQS had stronger associations than the Minimum Dietary Diversity for Women score (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Improvement of diet quality as measured by the GDQS was associated with less weight gain and risk of obesity in US women. The association was stronger for women aged <50 y. Associations similar in direction and magnitude were observed between the GDQS and obesity across age groups.
Last updated on 11/04/2021