Projected effectiveness of mandatory industrial fortification of wheat flour, milk, and edible oil with multiple micronutrients among Mongolian adults.

Citation:

Sabri Bromage, Davaasambuu Ganmaa, Janet W. Rich-Edwards, Bernard Rosner, Jorick Bater, and Wafaie W. Fawzi. 8/2/2018. “Projected effectiveness of mandatory industrial fortification of wheat flour, milk, and edible oil with multiple micronutrients among Mongolian adults.” PLoS One, 13, 8, Pp. e0201230. Publisher's Version
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Abstract:

Industrial fortification of wheat flour is a potentially effective strategy for addressing micronutrient deficiencies in Mongolia, given its ubiquitous consumption and centralized production. However, Mongolia has not mandated fortification of any foods except for salt with iodine. This study modeled the effectiveness and safety of mandatory industrial fortification of wheat flour alone and in combination with edible oil and milk in reducing the prevalence of multiple micronutrient intake deficiencies among healthy non-pregnant adults in Mongolia. Six days of diet records (3 summer, 3 winter) were collected from 320 urban and rural adults across the country and analyzed for food and nutrient consumption using a purpose-built food composition table, and the Intake Monitoring and Planning Program (IMAPP) was used to project the effects of fortification on summer and winter bioavailable micronutrient intake and intake deficiency under different fortification guidelines within population subgroups defined by urban or rural locality and sex. Projections showed that flour fortification would be effective in reducing intake deficiencies of thiamin and folate, while marginal benefits of fortification with iron and riboflavin would be smaller given these nutrients' higher baseline consumption, and fortification with zinc, niacin, and vitamin B12 may be unnecessary. Fortification of flour, oil, and milk with vitamins A, D, and E at levels suggested by international guidelines would substantially reduce vitamin A intake deficiency and would increase vitamin D intake considerably, with the greatest benefits elicited by flour fortification and smaller benefits by additionally fortifying oil and milk. These results support mandatory industrial fortification of wheat flour, edible oil, and milk with iron, thiamin, riboflavin, folate, and vitamins A, D, and E in Mongolia. Considerations will be necessary to ensure the fortification of these nutrients is also effective for children, for whom the potential benefit of zinc, niacin, and vitamin B12 fortification should be assessed.

Last updated on 10/17/2020