Selected Articles

2022
Sampson, Robert J. 2022. “Legacies of inequality, legacy lead exposures, and improving population well-being.” Proceedings of the American Academy of Sciences 119 (e2202401119). Publisher's Version
Levy, Brian, Karl Vachuska, S.V. Subramanian, and Robert J. Sampson. 2022. “Neighborhood Socioeconomic Inequality Based on Everyday Mobility Predicts Covid-19 Infection in San Francisco, Seattle, and Wisconsin.” Science Advances 8 (7). Publisher's Version
Sampson, Robert J., and Brian L.Levy. 2022. “The Enduring Neighborhood Effect, Everyday Urban Mobility, and Violence in Chicago.” The University of Chicago Law Review 89 (2): 323-347. Publisher's Version
2021
Neil, Roland, and Robert J. Sampson. 2021. “The Birth Lottery of History: Arrest over the Life Course of Multiple Cohorts Coming of Age, 1995-2018.” American Journal of Sociology 126: March (5): 1127-1178. Publisher's Version
Candipan, Jennifer, Nolan Edward Phillips, Robert J Sampson, and Mario Small. 2021. “From residence to movement: The nature of racial segregation in everyday urban mobility.” Urban Studies. Publisher's Version
2020
L.Levy, Brian, Nolan E. Phillips, and Robert J. Sampson. 2020. “Triple Disadvantage: Neighborhood Networks of Everyday Urban Mobility and Violence in U.S. Cities.” American Sociological Review 85 (6): 925-956. Publisher's Version
Sampson, Robert J., and Brian L.Levy. 2020. “Beyond Residential Mobility: Mobility-Based Connectedness and Rates of Violence in Large Cities.” Race and Social Problems 12: 77-86.
2019
Phillips, Nolan, Brian L.Levy, Robert J. Sampson, Mario L. Small, and Ryan Qi Wang. 2019. “The Social Integration of American Cities: Network Measures of Connectedness Based on Everyday Mobility across Neighborhoods.” Sociological Methods and Research, 1-40. Publisher's Version
Levy, Brian, Ann Owens, and Robert J. Sampson. 2019. “The Varying Effects of Neighborhood Disadvantage on College Graduation: Moderating and Mediating Mechanisms.” Sociology of Education 92 (3): 269-292. Publisher's Version
Manduca, Robert, and Robert J. Sampson. 2019. “Punishing and toxic neighborhood environments independently predict the intergenerational social mobility of black and white children.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 116 (16): 7772 – 7777. Publisher's Version
Nagin, Daniel S, and Robert J. Sampson. 2019. “The Real Gold Standard: Measuring Counterfactual Worlds That Matter Most to Social Science and Policy.” Annual Review of Criminology 2: 123-145. Publisher's Version
2018
Wang, Qi, Nolan Edward Phillips, Mario L. Small, and Robert J. Sampson. 2018. “Urban Mobility and Neighborhood Isolation in America’s 50 Largest Cities.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 115 (30): 7735-7740. Publisher's Version
Muller, Christopher, Robert J. Sampson, and Alix S. Winter. 2018. “Environmental Inequality: The Social Causes and Consequences of Lead Exposure.” Annual Review of Sociology 44: 263-282. Publisher's Version
Sampson, Robert J., William Julius Wilson, and Hanna Katz. 2018. “Reassessing “Toward a Theory of Race, Crime, and Urban Inequality”: Enduring and New Challenges in 21st Century America.” Du Bois Review: Social Science Research on Race 15 (1): 13-34. Publisher's Version
The consequences of lead exposure for later crime are theoretically compelling, but direct evidence from representative, longitudinal samples is sparse. By capitalizing on an original follow‐up of more than 200 infants from the birth cohort of the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods matched to their blood lead levels from around age 3 years, we provide several tests. Through the use of four waves of longitudinal data that include measures of individual development, family background, and structural inequalities in how lead becomes embodied, we assess the hypothesized link between early childhood lead poisoning and both parent‐reported delinquent behavior and official arrest in late adolescence. We also test for mediating developmental processes of impulsivity and anxiety or depression. The results from multiple analytic strategies that make different assumptions reveal a plausibly causal effect of childhood lead exposure on adolescent delinquent behavior but no direct link to arrests. The results underscore lead exposure as a trigger for poisoned development in the early life course and call for greater integration of the environment into theories of individual differences in criminal behavior.
2017
Sampson, Robert J., Jared Schachner, and Robert D. Mare. 2017. “Urban Income Inequality and the Great Recession in Sunbelt Form: Disentangling Individual and Neighborhood-Level Change in Los Angeles.” RSF: The Russell Sage Foundation Journal of the Social Sciences 3: 102-128. Publisher's Version Abstract
New social transformations within and beyond the cities of classic urban studies challenge prevailing accounts of spatial inequality. This paper pivots from the Rust Belt to the Sunbelt accordingly, disentangling persistence and change in neighborhood median income and concentrated income extremes in Los Angeles County. We first examine patterns of change over two decades starting in 1990 for all Los Angeles neighborhoods. We then analyze an original longitudinal study of approximately six hundred Angelenos from 2000 to 2013, assessing the degree to which contextual changes in neighborhood income arise from neighborhood-level mobility or individual residential mobility. Overall we find deep and persistent inequality among both neighborhoods and individuals. Contrary to prior research, we also find that residential mobility does not materially alter neighborhood economic conditions for most race, ethnic, and income groups. Our analyses lay the groundwork for a multilevel theoretical framework capable of explaining spatial inequality across cities and historical eras.

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