Huihui Ye, Stephen F Cauley, Borjan Gagoski, Berkin Bilgic, Dan Ma, Yun Jiang, Yiping P Du, Mark A Griswold, Lawrence L Wald, and Kawin Setsompop. 2017. “Simultaneous multislice magnetic resonance fingerprinting (SMS-MRF) with direct-spiral slice-GRAPPA (ds-SG) reconstruction.” Magn Reson Med, 77, 5, Pp. 1966-1974.Abstract
PURPOSE: To develop a reconstruction method to improve SMS-MRF, in which slice acceleration is used in conjunction with highly undersampled in-plane acceleration to speed up MRF acquisition. METHODS: In this work two methods are employed to efficiently perform the simultaneous multislice magnetic resonance fingerprinting (SMS-MRF) data acquisition and the direct-spiral slice-GRAPPA (ds-SG) reconstruction. First, the lengthy training data acquisition is shortened by employing the through-time/through-k-space approach, in which similar k-space locations within and across spiral interleaves are grouped and are associated with a single set of kernel. Second, inversion recovery preparation (IR prepped), variable flip angle (FA), and repetition time (TR) are used for the acquisition of the training data, to increase signal variation and to improve the conditioning of the kernel fitting. RESULTS: The grouping of k-space locations enables a large reduction in the number of kernels required, and the IR-prepped training data with variable FA and TR provide improved ds-SG kernels and reconstruction performance. With direct-spiral slice-GRAPPA, tissue parameter maps comparable to that of conventional MRF were obtained at multiband (MB) = 3 acceleration using t-blipped SMS-MRF acquisition with 32-channel head coil at 3 Tesla (T). CONCLUSIONS: The proposed reconstruction scheme allows MB = 3 accelerated SMS-MRF imaging with high-quality T , T , and off-resonance maps, and can be used to significantly shorten MRF acquisition and aid in its adoption in neuro-scientific and clinical settings. Magn Reson Med 77:1966-1974, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.
Berkin Bilgic, Elfar Adalsteinsson, Mark A Griswold, Lawrence L Wald, and Kawin Setsompop. 2017. “Simultaneous multislice magnetic resonance fingerprinting with low-rank and subspace modeling.” Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc, 2017, Pp. 3264-3268.Abstract
Magnetic resonance fingerprinting (MRF) is a new quantitative imaging paradigm that enables simultaneous acquisition of multiple magnetic resonance tissue parameters (e.g., T, T, and spin density). Recently, MRF has been integrated with simultaneous multislice (SMS) acquisitions to enable volumetric imaging with faster scan time. In this paper, we present a new image reconstruction method based on low-rank and subspace modeling for improved SMS-MRF. Here the low-rank model exploits strong spatiotemporal correlation among contrast-weighted images, while the subspace model captures the temporal evolution of magnetization dynamics. With the proposed model, the image reconstruction problem is formulated as a convex optimization problem, for which we develop an algorithm based on variable splitting and the alternating direction method of multipliers. The performance of the proposed method has been evaluated by numerical experiments, and the results demonstrate that the proposed method leads to improved accuracy over the conventional approach. Practically, the proposed method has a potential to allow for a 3× speedup with minimal reconstruction error, resulting in less than 5 sec imaging time per slice.
Berkin Bilgic, Huihui Ye, Lawrence L Wald, and Kawin Setsompop. 2017. “Simultaneous Time Interleaved MultiSlice (STIMS) for Rapid Susceptibility Weighted acquisition.” Neuroimage, 155, Pp. 577-586.Abstract
T* weighted 3D Gradient Echo (GRE) acquisition is the main sequence used for Susceptibility Weighted Imaging (SWI) and Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping (QSM). These applications require a long echo time (TE) to build up phase contrast, requiring a long repetition time (TR), and leading to excessively lengthy scans. The long TE acquisition creates a significant amount of unused time within each TR, which can be utilized for either multi-echo sampling or additional image encoding with the echo-shift technique. The latter leads to significant saving in acquisition time while retaining the desired phase and T* contrast. In this work, we introduce the Simultaneous Time Interleaved MultiSlice (STIMS) echo-shift technique, which mitigates slab boundary artifacts by interleaving comb-shaped slice groups with Simultaneous MultiSlice (SMS) excitation. This enjoys the same SNR benefit of 3D signal averaging as previously introduced multi-slab version, where each slab group is sub-resolved with kz phase encoding. Further, we combine SMS echo-shift with Compressed Sensing (CS) Wave acceleration, which enhances Wave-CAIPI acquisition/reconstruction with random undersampling and sparsity prior. STIMS and CS-Wave combination thus yields up to 45-fold acceleration over conventional full encoding, allowing a 15sec full-brain acquisition with 1.5 mm isotropic resolution at long TE of 39 ms at 3T. In addition to utilizing empty sequence time due to long TE, STIMS is a general concept that could exploit gaps due to e.g. inversion modules in magnetization-prepared rapid gradient-echo (MPRAGE) and fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequences.
Itthi Chatnuntawech, Patrick McDaniel, Stephen F Cauley, Borjan A Gagoski, Christian Langkammer, Adrian Martin, Ellen P Grant, Lawrence L Wald, Kawin Setsompop, Elfar Adalsteinsson, and Berkin Bilgic. 2017. “Single-step quantitative susceptibility mapping with variational penalties.” NMR Biomed, 30, 4.Abstract
Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) estimates the underlying tissue magnetic susceptibility from the gradient echo (GRE) phase signal through background phase removal and dipole inversion steps. Each of these steps typically requires the solution of an ill-posed inverse problem and thus necessitates additional regularization. Recently developed single-step QSM algorithms directly relate the unprocessed GRE phase to the unknown susceptibility distribution, thereby requiring the solution of a single inverse problem. In this work, we show that such a holistic approach provides susceptibility estimation with artifact mitigation and develop efficient algorithms that involve simple analytical solutions for all of the optimization steps. Our methods employ total variation (TV) and total generalized variation (TGV) to jointly perform the background removal and dipole inversion in a single step. Using multiple spherical mean value (SMV) kernels of varying radii permits high-fidelity background removal whilst retaining the phase information in the cortex. Using numerical simulations, we demonstrate that the proposed single-step methods reduce the reconstruction error by up to 66% relative to the multi-step methods that involve SMV background filtering with the same number of SMV kernels, followed by TV- or TGV-regularized dipole inversion. In vivo single-step experiments demonstrate a dramatic reduction in dipole streaking artifacts and improved homogeneity of image contrast. These acquisitions employ the rapid three-dimensional echo planar imaging (3D EPI) and Wave-CAIPI (controlled aliasing in parallel imaging) trajectories for signal-to-noise ratio-efficient whole-brain imaging. Herein, we also demonstrate the multi-echo capability of the Wave-CAIPI sequence for the first time, and introduce an automated, phase-sensitive coil sensitivity estimation scheme based on a 4-s calibration acquisition. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Yun Jiang, Dan Ma, Himanshu Bhat, Huihui Ye, Stephen F Cauley, Lawrence L Wald, Kawin Setsompop, and Mark A Griswold. 2017. “Use of pattern recognition for unaliasing simultaneously acquired slices in simultaneous multislice MR fingerprinting.” Magn Reson Med, 78, 5, Pp. 1870-1876.Abstract
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to accelerate an MR fingerprinting (MRF) acquisition by using a simultaneous multislice method. METHODS: A multiband radiofrequency (RF) pulse was designed to excite two slices with different flip angles and phases. The signals of two slices were driven to be as orthogonal as possible. The mixed and undersampled MRF signal was matched to two dictionaries to retrieve T and T maps of each slice. Quantitative results from the proposed method were validated with the gold-standard spin echo methods in a phantom. T and T maps of in vivo human brain from two simultaneously acquired slices were also compared to the results of fast imaging with steady-state precession based MRF method (MRF-FISP) with a single-band RF excitation. RESULTS: The phantom results showed that the simultaneous multislice imaging MRF-FISP method quantified the relaxation properties accurately compared to the gold-standard spin echo methods. T and T values of in vivo brain from the proposed method also matched the results from the normal MRF-FISP acquisition. CONCLUSION: T and T values can be quantified at a multiband acceleration factor of two using our proposed acquisition even in a single-channel receive coil. Further acceleration could be achieved by combining this method with parallel imaging or iterative reconstruction. Magn Reson Med 78:1870-1876, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.
Jason P Stockmann, Thomas Witzel, Boris Keil, Jonathan R Polimeni, Azma Mareyam, Cristen LaPierre, Kawin Setsompop, and Lawrence L Wald. 2016. “A 32-channel combined RF and B0 shim array for 3T brain imaging.” Magn Reson Med, 75, 1, Pp. 441-51.Abstract
PURPOSE: We add user-controllable direct currents (DC) to the individual elements of a 32-channel radio-frequency (RF) receive array to provide B0 shimming ability while preserving the array's reception sensitivity and parallel imaging performance. METHODS: Shim performance using constrained DC current (± 2.5A) is simulated for brain arrays ranging from 8 to 128 elements. A 32-channel 3-tesla brain array is realized using inductive chokes to bridge the tuning capacitors on each RF loop. The RF and B0 shimming performance is assessed in bench and imaging measurements. RESULTS: The addition of DC currents to the 32-channel RF array is achieved with minimal disruption of the RF performance and/or negative side effects such as conductor heating or mechanical torques. The shimming results agree well with simulations and show performance superior to third-order spherical harmonic (SH) shimming. Imaging tests show the ability to reduce the standard frontal lobe susceptibility-induced fields and improve echo planar imaging geometric distortion. The simulation of 64- and 128-channel brain arrays suggest that even further shimming improvement is possible (equivalent to up to 6th-order SH shim coils). CONCLUSION: Including user-controlled shim currents on the loops of a conventional highly parallel brain array coil is feasible with modest current levels and produces improved B0 shimming performance over standard second-order SH shimming.
Huihui Ye, Dan Ma, Yun Jiang, Stephen F Cauley, Yiping Du, Lawrence L Wald, Mark A Griswold, and Kawin Setsompop. 2016. “Accelerating magnetic resonance fingerprinting (MRF) using t-blipped simultaneous multislice (SMS) acquisition.” Magn Reson Med, 75, 5, Pp. 2078-85.Abstract
PURPOSE: We incorporate simultaneous multislice (SMS) acquisition into MR fingerprinting (MRF) to accelerate the MRF acquisition. METHODS: The t-Blipped SMS-MRF method is achieved by adding a Gz blip before each data acquisition window and balancing it with a Gz blip of opposing polarity at the end of each TR. Thus the signal from different simultaneously excited slices are encoded with different phases without disturbing the signal evolution. Furthermore, by varying the Gz blip area and/or polarity as a function of repetition time, the slices' differential phase can also be made to vary as a function of time. For reconstruction of t-Blipped SMS-MRF data, we demonstrate a combined slice-direction SENSE and modified dictionary matching method. RESULTS: In Monte Carlo simulation, the parameter mapping from multiband factor (MB) = 2 t-Blipped SMS-MRF shows good accuracy and precision when compared with results from reference conventional MRF data with concordance correlation coefficients (CCC) of 0.96 for T1 estimates and 0.90 for T2 estimates. For in vivo experiments, T1 and T2 maps from MB=2 t-Blipped SMS-MRF have a high agreement with ones from conventional MRF. CONCLUSION: The MB=2 t-Blipped SMS-MRF acquisition/reconstruction method has been demonstrated and validated to provide more rapid parameter mapping in the MRF framework.
Lipeng Ning, Kawin Setsompop, Oleg Michailovich, Nikos Makris, Martha E Shenton, Carl-Fredrik Westin, and Yogesh Rathi. 2016. “Corrigendum to "A joint compressed-sensing and super-resolution approach for very high-resolution diffusion imaging".” Neuroimage, 142, Pp. 696.
Laura D Lewis, Kawin Setsompop, Bruce R Rosen, and Jonathan R Polimeni. 2016. “Fast fMRI can detect oscillatory neural activity in humans.” Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 113, 43, Pp. E6679-E6685.Abstract
Oscillatory neural dynamics play an important role in the coordination of large-scale brain networks. High-level cognitive processes depend on dynamics evolving over hundreds of milliseconds, so measuring neural activity in this frequency range is important for cognitive neuroscience. However, current noninvasive neuroimaging methods are not able to precisely localize oscillatory neural activity above 0.2 Hz. Electroencephalography and magnetoencephalography have limited spatial resolution, whereas fMRI has limited temporal resolution because it measures vascular responses rather than directly recording neural activity. We hypothesized that the recent development of fast fMRI techniques, combined with the extra sensitivity afforded by ultra-high-field systems, could enable precise localization of neural oscillations. We tested whether fMRI can detect neural oscillations using human visual cortex as a model system. We detected small oscillatory fMRI signals in response to stimuli oscillating at up to 0.75 Hz within single scan sessions, and these responses were an order of magnitude larger than predicted by canonical linear models. Simultaneous EEG-fMRI and simulations based on a biophysical model of the hemodynamic response to neuronal activity suggested that the blood oxygen level-dependent response becomes faster for rapidly varying stimuli, enabling the detection of higher frequencies than expected. Accounting for phase delays across voxels further improved detection, demonstrating that identifying vascular delays will be of increasing importance with higher-frequency activity. These results challenge the assumption that the hemodynamic response is slow, and demonstrate that fMRI has the potential to map neural oscillations directly throughout the brain.
Marta Bianciardi, Nicola Toschi, Cornelius Eichner, Jonathan R Polimeni, Kawin Setsompop, Emery N Brown, Matti S Hämäläinen, Bruce R Rosen, and Lawrence L Wald. 2016. “In vivo functional connectome of human brainstem nuclei of the ascending arousal, autonomic, and motor systems by high spatial resolution 7-Tesla fMRI.” MAGMA, 29, 3, Pp. 451-62.Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to map the in vivo human functional connectivity of several brainstem nuclei with the rest of the brain by using seed-based correlation of ultra-high magnetic field functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used the recently developed template of 11 brainstem nuclei derived from multi-contrast structural MRI at 7 Tesla as seed regions to determine their connectivity to the rest of the brain. To achieve this, we used the increased contrast-to-noise ratio of 7-Tesla fMRI compared with 3 Tesla and time-efficient simultaneous multi-slice imaging to cover the brain with high spatial resolution (1.1-mm isotropic nominal resolution) while maintaining a short repetition time (2.5 s). RESULTS: The delineated Pearson's correlation-based functional connectivity diagrams (connectomes) of 11 brainstem nuclei of the ascending arousal, motor, and autonomic systems from 12 controls are presented and discussed in the context of existing histology and animal work. CONCLUSION: Considering that the investigated brainstem nuclei play a crucial role in several vital functions, the delineated preliminary connectomes might prove useful for future in vivo research and clinical studies of human brainstem function and pathology, including disorders of consciousness, sleep disorders, autonomic disorders, Parkinson's disease, and other motor disorders.
Lipeng Ning, Kawin Setsompop, Oleg Michailovich, Nikos Makris, Martha E Shenton, Carl-Fredrik Westin, and Yogesh Rathi. 2016. “A joint compressed-sensing and super-resolution approach for very high-resolution diffusion imaging.” Neuroimage, 125, Pp. 386-400.Abstract
Diffusion MRI (dMRI) can provide invaluable information about the structure of different tissue types in the brain. Standard dMRI acquisitions facilitate a proper analysis (e.g. tracing) of medium-to-large white matter bundles. However, smaller fiber bundles connecting very small cortical or sub-cortical regions cannot be traced accurately in images with large voxel sizes. Yet, the ability to trace such fiber bundles is critical for several applications such as deep brain stimulation and neurosurgery. In this work, we propose a novel acquisition and reconstruction scheme for obtaining high spatial resolution dMRI images using multiple low resolution (LR) images, which is effective in reducing acquisition time while improving the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The proposed method called compressed-sensing super resolution reconstruction (CS-SRR), uses multiple overlapping thick-slice dMRI volumes that are under-sampled in q-space to reconstruct diffusion signal with complex orientations. The proposed method combines the twin concepts of compressed sensing and super-resolution to model the diffusion signal (at a given b-value) in a basis of spherical ridgelets with total-variation (TV) regularization to account for signal correlation in neighboring voxels. A computationally efficient algorithm based on the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) is introduced for solving the CS-SRR problem. The performance of the proposed method is quantitatively evaluated on several in-vivo human data sets including a true SRR scenario. Our experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can be used for reconstructing sub-millimeter super resolution dMRI data with very good data fidelity in clinically feasible acquisition time.
Bo Zhao, Kawin Setsompop, Huihui Ye, Stephen F Cauley, and Lawrence L Wald. 2016. “Maximum Likelihood Reconstruction for Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting.” IEEE Trans Med Imaging, 35, 8, Pp. 1812-23.Abstract
This paper introduces a statistical estimation framework for magnetic resonance (MR) fingerprinting, a recently proposed quantitative imaging paradigm. Within this framework, we present a maximum likelihood (ML) formalism to estimate multiple MR tissue parameter maps directly from highly undersampled, noisy k-space data. A novel algorithm, based on variable splitting, the alternating direction method of multipliers, and the variable projection method, is developed to solve the resulting optimization problem. Representative results from both simulations and in vivo experiments demonstrate that the proposed approach yields significantly improved accuracy in parameter estimation, compared to the conventional MR fingerprinting reconstruction. Moreover, the proposed framework provides new theoretical insights into the conventional approach. We show analytically that the conventional approach is an approximation to the ML reconstruction; more precisely, it is exactly equivalent to the first iteration of the proposed algorithm for the ML reconstruction, provided that a gridding reconstruction is used as an initialization.
Dan Ma, Eric Y Pierre, Yun Jiang, Mark D Schluchter, Kawin Setsompop, Vikas Gulani, and Mark A Griswold. 2016. “Music-based magnetic resonance fingerprinting to improve patient comfort during MRI examinations.” Magn Reson Med, 75, 6, Pp. 2303-14.Abstract
PURPOSE: Unpleasant acoustic noise is a drawback of almost every MRI scan. Instead of reducing acoustic noise to improve patient comfort, we propose a technique for mitigating the noise problem by producing musical sounds directly from the switching magnetic fields while simultaneously quantifying multiple important tissue properties. THEORY AND METHODS: MP3 music files were converted to arbitrary encoding gradients, which were then used with varying flip angles and repetition times in a two- and three-dimensional magnetic resonance fingerprinting (MRF) examination. This new acquisition method, named MRF-Music, was used to quantify T1 , T2 , and proton density maps simultaneously while providing pleasing sounds to the patients. RESULTS: MRF-Music scans improved patient comfort significantly during MRI examinations. The T1 and T2 values measured from phantom are in good agreement with those from the standard spin echo measurements. T1 and T2 values from the brain scan are also close to previously reported values. CONCLUSIONS: MRF-Music sequence provides significant improvement in patient comfort compared with the MRF scan and other fast imaging techniques such as echo planar imaging and turbo spin echo scans. It is also a fast and accurate quantitative method that quantifies multiple relaxation parameters simultaneously. Magn Reson Med 75:2303-2314, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Justin P Haldar, Kawin Setsompop, and Lawrence L Wald. 2016. “Optimal experiment design for magnetic resonance fingerprinting.” Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc, 2016, Pp. 453-456.Abstract
Magnetic resonance (MR) fingerprinting is an emerging quantitative MR imaging technique that simultaneously acquires multiple tissue parameters in an efficient experiment. In this work, we present an estimation-theoretic framework to evaluate and design MR fingerprinting experiments. More specifically, we derive the Cramér-Rao bound (CRB), a lower bound on the covariance of any unbiased estimator, to characterize parameter estimation for MR fingerprinting. We then formulate an optimal experiment design problem based on the CRB to choose a set of acquisition parameters (e.g., flip angles and/or repetition times) that maximizes the signal-to-noise ratio efficiency of the resulting experiment. The utility of the proposed approach is validated by numerical studies. Representative results demonstrate that the optimized experiments allow for substantial reduction in the length of an MR fingerprinting acquisition, and substantial improvement in parameter estimation performance.
Kawin Setsompop, David A Feinberg, and Jonathan R Polimeni. 2016. “Rapid brain MRI acquisition techniques at ultra-high fields.” NMR Biomed, 29, 9, Pp. 1198-221.Abstract
Ultra-high-field MRI provides large increases in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) as well as enhancement of several contrast mechanisms in both structural and functional imaging. Combined, these gains result in a substantial boost in contrast-to-noise ratio that can be exploited for higher-spatial-resolution imaging to extract finer-scale information about the brain. With increased spatial resolution, however, there is a concurrent increased image-encoding burden that can cause unacceptably long scan times for structural imaging and slow temporal sampling of the hemodynamic response in functional MRI - particularly when whole-brain imaging is desired. To address this issue, new directions of imaging technology development - such as the move from conventional 2D slice-by-slice imaging to more efficient simultaneous multislice (SMS) or multiband imaging (which can be viewed as "pseudo-3D" encoding) as well as full 3D imaging - have provided dramatic improvements in acquisition speed. Such imaging paradigms provide higher SNR efficiency as well as improved encoding efficiency. Moreover, SMS and 3D imaging can make better use of coil sensitivity information in multichannel receiver arrays used for parallel imaging acquisitions through controlled aliasing in multiple spatial directions. This has enabled unprecedented acceleration factors of an order of magnitude or higher in these imaging acquisition schemes, with low image artifact levels and high SNR. Here we review the latest developments of SMS and 3D imaging methods and related technologies at ultra-high field for rapid high-resolution functional and structural imaging of the brain. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Berkin Bilgic, Luke Xie, Russell Dibb, Christian Langkammer, Aysegul Mutluay, Huihui Ye, Jonathan R Polimeni, Jean Augustinack, Chunlei Liu, Lawrence L Wald, and Kawin Setsompop. 2016. “Rapid multi-orientation quantitative susceptibility mapping.” Neuroimage, 125, Pp. 1131-1141.Abstract
Three-dimensional gradient echo (GRE) is the main workhorse sequence used for susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI), quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM), and susceptibility tensor imaging (STI). Achieving optimal phase signal-to-noise ratio requires late echo times, thus necessitating a long repetition time (TR). Combined with the large encoding burden of whole-brain coverage with high resolution, this leads to increased scan time. Further, the dipole kernel relating the tissue phase to the underlying susceptibility distribution undersamples the frequency content of the susceptibility map. Scans at multiple head orientations along with calculation of susceptibility through multi-orientation sampling (COSMOS) are one way to effectively mitigate this issue. Additionally, STI requires a minimum of 6 head orientations to solve for the independent tensor elements in each voxel. The requirements of high-resolution imaging with long TR at multiple orientations substantially lengthen the acquisition of COSMOS and STI. The goal of this work is to dramatically speed up susceptibility mapping at multiple head orientations. We demonstrate highly efficient acquisition using 3D-GRE with Wave-CAIPI and dramatically reduce the acquisition time of these protocols. Using R=15-fold acceleration with Wave-CAIPI permits acquisition per head orientation in 90s at 1.1mm isotropic resolution, and 5:35min at 0.5mm isotropic resolution. Since Wave-CAIPI fully harnesses the 3D spatial encoding capability of receive arrays, the maximum g-factor noise amplification remains below 1.30 at 3T and 1.12 at 7T. This allows a 30-min exam for STI with 12 orientations, thus paving the way to its clinical application.
Itthi Chatnuntawech, Adrian Martin, Berkin Bilgic, Kawin Setsompop, Elfar Adalsteinsson, and Emanuele Schiavi. 2016. “Vectorial total generalized variation for accelerated multi-channel multi-contrast MRI.” Magn Reson Imaging, 34, 8, Pp. 1161-70.Abstract
PURPOSE: To develop and implement an efficient reconstruction technique to improve accelerated multi-channel multi-contrast MRI. THEORY AND METHODS: The vectorial total generalized variation (TGV) operator is used as a regularizer for the sensitivity encoding (SENSE) technique to improve image quality of multi-channel multi-contrast MRI. The alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) is used to efficiently reconstruct the data. The performance of the proposed method (MC-TGV-SENSE) is assessed on two healthy volunteers at several acceleration factors. RESULTS: As demonstrated on the in vivo results, MC-TGV-SENSE had the lowest root-mean-square error (RMSE), highest structural similarity index, and best visual quality at all acceleration factors, compared to other methods under consideration. MC-TGV-SENSE yielded up to 17.3% relative RMSE reduction compared to the widely used total variation regularized SENSE. Furthermore, we observed that the reconstruction time of MC-TGV-SENSE is reduced by approximately a factor of two with comparable RMSEs by using the proposed ADMM-based algorithm as opposed to the more commonly used Chambolle-Pock primal-dual algorithm for the TGV-based reconstruction. CONCLUSION: MC-TGV-SENSE is a better alternative than the existing reconstruction methods for accelerated multi-channel multi-contrast MRI. The proposed method exploits shared information among the images (MC), mitigates staircasing artifacts (TGV), and uses the encoding power of multiple receiver coils (SENSE).
Itthi Chatnuntawech, Borjan Gagoski, Berkin Bilgic, Stephen F Cauley, Kawin Setsompop, and Elfar Adalsteinsson. 2015. “Accelerated H MRSI using randomly undersampled spiral-based k-space trajectories.” Magn Reson Med, 74, 1, Pp. 13-24.Abstract
PURPOSE: To develop and evaluate the performance of an acquisition and reconstruction method for accelerated MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) through undersampling of spiral trajectories. THEORY AND METHODS: A randomly undersampled spiral acquisition and sensitivity encoding (SENSE) with total variation (TV) regularization, random SENSE+TV, is developed and evaluated on single-slice numerical phantom, in vivo single-slice MRSI, and in vivo three-dimensional (3D)-MRSI at 3 Tesla. Random SENSE+TV was compared with five alternative methods for accelerated MRSI. RESULTS: For the in vivo single-slice MRSI, random SENSE+TV yields up to 2.7 and 2 times reduction in root-mean-square error (RMSE) of reconstructed N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), creatine, and choline maps, compared with the denoised fully sampled and uniformly undersampled SENSE+TV methods with the same acquisition time, respectively. For the in vivo 3D-MRSI, random SENSE+TV yields up to 1.6 times reduction in RMSE, compared with uniform SENSE+TV. Furthermore, by using random SENSE+TV, we have demonstrated on the in vivo single-slice and 3D-MRSI that acceleration factors of 4.5 and 4 are achievable with the same quality as the fully sampled data, as measured by RMSE of reconstructed NAA map, respectively. CONCLUSION: With the same scan time, random SENSE+TV yields lower RMSEs of metabolite maps than other methods evaluated. Random SENSE+TV achieves up to 4.5-fold acceleration with comparable data quality as the fully sampled acquisition. Magn Reson Med 74:13-24, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Lipeng Ning, Kawin Setsompop, Oleg Michailovich, Nikos Makris, Carl-Fredrik Westin, and Yogesh Rathi. 2015. “A Compressed-Sensing Approach for Super-Resolution Reconstruction of Diffusion MRI.” Inf Process Med Imaging, 24, Pp. 57-68.Abstract
We present an innovative framework for reconstructing high-spatial-resolution diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) from multiple low-resolution (LR) images. Our approach combines the twin concepts of compressed sensing (CS) and classical super-resolution to reduce acquisition time while increasing spatial resolution. We use subpixel-shifted LR images with down-sampled and non-overlapping diffusion directions to reduce acquisition time. The diffusion signal in the high resolution (HR) image is represented in a sparsifying basis of spherical ridgelets to model complex fiber orientations with reduced number of measurements. The HR image is obtained as the solution of a convex optimization problem which can be solved using the proposed algorithm based on the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM). We qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate the performance of our method on two sets of in-vivo human brain data and show its effectiveness in accurately recovering very high resolution diffusion images.
Bastien Guérin, Kawin Setsompop, Huihui Ye, Benedikt A Poser, Andrew V Stenger, and Lawrence L Wald. 2015. “Design of parallel transmission pulses for simultaneous multislice with explicit control for peak power and local specific absorption rate.” Magn Reson Med, 73, 5, Pp. 1946-53.Abstract
PURPOSE: To design parallel transmit (pTx) simultaneous multislice (SMS) spokes pulses with explicit control for peak power and local and global specific absorption rate (SAR). METHODS: We design SMS pTx least-squares and magnitude least squares spokes pulses while constraining local SAR using the virtual observation points (VOPs) compression of SAR matrices. We evaluate our approach in simulations of a head (7T) and a body (3T) coil with eight channels arranged in two z-rows. RESULTS: For many of our simulations, control of average power by Tikhonov regularization of the SMS pTx spokes pulse design yielded pulses that violated hardware and SAR safety limits. On the other hand, control of peak power alone yielded pulses that violated local SAR limits. Pulses optimized with control of both local SAR and peak power satisfied all constraints and therefore had the best excitation performance under limited power and SAR constraints. These results extend our previous results for single slice pTx excitations but are more pronounced because of the large power demands and SAR of SMS pulses. CONCLUSIONS: Explicit control of local SAR and peak power is required to generate optimal SMS pTx excitations satisfying both the system's hardware limits and regulatory safety limits.