# Publications

2013

Yogesh Rathi, Borjan Gagoski, Kawin Setsompop, Oleg Michailovich, Ellen P Grant, and Carl-Fredrik Westin. 2013. “Diffusion propagator estimation from sparse measurements in a tractography framework.” Medical image computing and computer-assisted intervention : MICCAI .. International Conference on Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention, 16, Pt 3, Pp. 510–7. Publisher's VersionAbstract

Estimation of the diffusion propagator from a sparse set of diffusion MRI (dMRI) measurements is a field of active research. Sparse reconstruction methods propose to reduce scan time and are particularly suitable for scanning un-coperative patients. Recent work on reconstructing the diffusion signal from very few measurements using compressed sensing based techniques has focussed on propagator (or signal) estimation at each voxel independently. However, the goal of many neuroscience studies is to use tractography to study the pathology in white matter fiber tracts. Thus, in this work, we propose a joint framework for robust estimation of the diffusion propagator from sparse measurements while simultaneously tracing the white matter tracts. We propose to use a novel multi-tensor model of diffusion which incorporates the biexponential radial decay of the signal. Our preliminary results on in-vivo data show that the proposed method produces consistent and reliable fiber tracts from very few gradient directions while simultaneously estimating the bi-exponential decay of the diffusion propagator.

Yogesh Rathi, Borjan Gagoski, Kawin Setsompop, Oleg Michailovich, Ellen P Grant, and Carl-Fredrik Westin. 2013. “Diffusion propagator estimation from sparse measurements in a tractography framework.” Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv, 16, Pt 3, Pp. 510-7.Abstract

Estimation of the diffusion propagator from a sparse set of diffusion MRI (dMRI) measurements is a field of active research. Sparse reconstruction methods propose to reduce scan time and are particularly suitable for scanning un-coperative patients. Recent work on reconstructing the diffusion signal from very few measurements using compressed sensing based techniques has focussed on propagator (or signal) estimation at each voxel independently. However, the goal of many neuroscience studies is to use tractography to study the pathology in white matter fiber tracts. Thus, in this work, we propose a joint framework for robust estimation of the diffusion propagator from sparse measurements while simultaneously tracing the white matter tracts. We propose to use a novel multi-tensor model of diffusion which incorporates the biexponential radial decay of the signal. Our preliminary results on in-vivo data show that the proposed method produces consistent and reliable fiber tracts from very few gradient directions while simultaneously estimating the bi-exponential decay of the diffusion propagator.

SN Sotiropoulos, S Moeller, S Jbabdi, J Xu, JL Andersson, EJ Auerbach, E Yacoub, D Feinberg, K Setsompop, LL Wald, TEJ Behrens, K Ugurbil, and C Lenglet. 2013. “Effects of image reconstruction on fiber orientation mapping from multichannel diffusion MRI: reducing the noise floor using SENSE.” Magn Reson Med, 70, 6, Pp. 1682-9.Abstract

PURPOSE: To examine the effects of the reconstruction algorithm of magnitude images from multichannel diffusion MRI on fiber orientation estimation.
THEORY AND METHODS: It is well established that the method used to combine signals from different coil elements in multichannel MRI can have an impact on the properties of the reconstructed magnitude image. Using a root-sum-of-squares approach results in a magnitude signal that follows an effective noncentral-χ distribution. As a result, the noise floor, the minimum measurable in the absence of any true signal, is elevated. This is particularly relevant for diffusion-weighted MRI, where the signal attenuation is of interest.
RESULTS: In this study, we illustrate problems that such image reconstruction characteristics may cause in the estimation of fiber orientations, both for model-based and model-free approaches, when modern 32-channel coils are used. We further propose an alternative image reconstruction method that is based on sensitivity encoding (SENSE) and preserves the Rician nature of the single-channel, magnitude MR signal. We show that for the same k-space data, root-sum-of-squares can cause excessive overfitting and reduced precision in orientation estimation compared with the SENSE-based approach.
CONCLUSION: These results highlight the importance of choosing the appropriate image reconstruction method for tractography studies that use multichannel receiver coils for diffusion MRI acquisition.

SN Sotiropoulos, S Moeller, S Jbabdi, J Xu, JL Andersson, EJ Auerbach, E Yacoub, D Feinberg, K Setsompop, LL Wald, TEJ Behrens, K Ugurbil, and C Lenglet. 2013. “Effects of image reconstruction on fiber orientation mapping from multichannel diffusion MRI: reducing the noise floor using SENSE.” Magnetic resonance in medicine : official journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine / Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 70, 6, Pp. 1682–9. Publisher's VersionAbstract

PURPOSE: To examine the effects of the reconstruction algorithm of magnitude images from multichannel diffusion MRI on fiber orientation estimation. THEORY AND METHODS: It is well established that the method used to combine signals from different coil elements in multichannel MRI can have an impact on the properties of the reconstructed magnitude image. Using a root-sum-of-squares approach results in a magnitude signal that follows an effective noncentral-$\chi$ distribution. As a result, the noise floor, the minimum measurable in the absence of any true signal, is elevated. This is particularly relevant for diffusion-weighted MRI, where the signal attenuation is of interest. RESULTS: In this study, we illustrate problems that such image reconstruction characteristics may cause in the estimation of fiber orientations, both for model-based and model-free approaches, when modern 32-channel coils are used. We further propose an alternative image reconstruction method that is based on sensitivity encoding (SENSE) and preserves the Rician nature of the single-channel, magnitude MR signal. We show that for the same k-space data, root-sum-of-squares can cause excessive overfitting and reduced precision in orientation estimation compared with the SENSE-based approach. CONCLUSION: These results highlight the importance of choosing the appropriate image reconstruction method for tractography studies that use multichannel receiver coils for diffusion MRI acquisition.

Berkin Bilgic, Itthi Chatnuntawech, Kawin Setsompop, Stephen F Cauley, Anastasia Yendiki, Lawrence L Wald, and Elfar Adalsteinsson. 2013. “Fast dictionary-based reconstruction for diffusion spectrum imaging.” IEEE Trans Med Imaging, 32, 11, Pp. 2022-33.Abstract

Diffusion spectrum imaging reveals detailed local diffusion properties at the expense of substantially long imaging times. It is possible to accelerate acquisition by undersampling in q-space, followed by image reconstruction that exploits prior knowledge on the diffusion probability density functions (pdfs). Previously proposed methods impose this prior in the form of sparsity under wavelet and total variation transforms, or under adaptive dictionaries that are trained on example datasets to maximize the sparsity of the representation. These compressed sensing (CS) methods require full-brain processing times on the order of hours using MATLAB running on a workstation. This work presents two dictionary-based reconstruction techniques that use analytical solutions, and are two orders of magnitude faster than the previously proposed dictionary-based CS approach. The first method generates a dictionary from the training data using principal component analysis (PCA), and performs the reconstruction in the PCA space. The second proposed method applies reconstruction using pseudoinverse with Tikhonov regularization with respect to a dictionary. This dictionary can either be obtained using the K-SVD algorithm, or it can simply be the training dataset of pdfs without any training. All of the proposed methods achieve reconstruction times on the order of seconds per imaging slice, and have reconstruction quality comparable to that of dictionary-based CS algorithm.

Berkin Bilgic, Itthi Chatnuntawech, Kawin Setsompop, Stephen F. Cauley, Anastasia Yendiki, Lawrence L Wald, and Elfar Adalsteinsson. 2013. “Fast dictionary-based reconstruction for diffusion spectrum imaging.” IEEE transactions on medical imaging, 32, 11, Pp. 2022–33. Publisher's VersionAbstract

Diffusion spectrum imaging reveals detailed local diffusion properties at the expense of substantially long imaging times. It is possible to accelerate acquisition by undersampling in q-space, followed by image reconstruction that exploits prior knowledge on the diffusion probability density functions (pdfs). Previously proposed methods impose this prior in the form of sparsity under wavelet and total variation transforms, or under adaptive dictionaries that are trained on example datasets to maximize the sparsity of the representation. These compressed sensing (CS) methods require full-brain processing times on the order of hours using MATLAB running on a workstation. This work presents two dictionary-based reconstruction techniques that use analytical solutions, and are two orders of magnitude faster than the previously proposed dictionary-based CS approach. The first method generates a dictionary from the training data using principal component analysis (PCA), and performs the reconstruction in the PCA space. The second proposed method applies reconstruction using pseudoinverse with Tikhonov regularization with respect to a dictionary. This dictionary can either be obtained using the K-SVD algorithm, or it can simply be the training dataset of pdfs without any training. All of the proposed methods achieve reconstruction times on the order of seconds per imaging slice, and have reconstruction quality comparable to that of dictionary-based CS algorithm.

K Setsompop, R Kimmlingen, E Eberlein, T Witzel, J Cohen-Adad, JA McNab, B Keil, MD Tisdall, P Hoecht, P Dietz, SF Cauley, V Tountcheva, V Matschl, VH Lenz, K Heberlein, A Potthast, H Thein, J Van Horn, A Toga, F Schmitt, D Lehne, BR Rosen, V Wedeen, and LL Wald. 2013. “Pushing the limits of in vivo diffusion MRI for the Human Connectome Project.” NeuroImage, 80, Pp. 220–33. Publisher's VersionAbstract

Perhaps more than any other "-omics" endeavor, the accuracy and level of detail obtained from mapping the major connection pathways in the living human brain with diffusion MRI depend on the capabilities of the imaging technology used. The current tools are remarkable; allowing the formation of an "image" of the water diffusion probability distribution in regions of complex crossing fibers at each of half a million voxels in the brain. Nonetheless our ability to map the connection pathways is limited by the image sensitivity and resolution, and also the contrast and resolution in encoding of the diffusion probability distribution. The goal of our Human Connectome Project (HCP) is to address these limiting factors by re-engineering the scanner from the ground up to optimize the high b-value, high angular resolution diffusion imaging needed for sensitive and accurate mapping of the brain's structural connections. Our efforts were directed based on the relative contributions of each scanner component. The gradient subsection was a major focus since gradient amplitude is central to determining the diffusion contrast, the amount of T2 signal loss, and the blurring of the water PDF over the course of the diffusion time. By implementing a novel 4-port drive geometry and optimizing size and linearity for the brain, we demonstrate a whole-body sized scanner with G(max) = 300 mT/m on each axis capable of the sustained duty cycle needed for diffusion imaging. The system is capable of slewing the gradient at a rate of 200 T/m/s as needed for the EPI image encoding. In order to enhance the efficiency of the diffusion sequence we implemented a FOV shifting approach to Simultaneous MultiSlice (SMS) EPI capable of unaliasing 3 slices excited simultaneously with a modest g-factor penalty allowing us to diffusion encode whole brain volumes with low TR and TE. Finally we combine the multi-slice approach with a compressive sampling reconstruction to sufficiently undersample q-space to achieve a DSI scan in less than 5 min. To augment this accelerated imaging approach we developed a 64-channel, tight-fitting brain array coil and show its performance benefit compared to a commercial 32-channel coil at all locations in the brain for these accelerated acquisitions. The technical challenges of developing the over-all system are discussed as well as results from SNR comparisons, ODF metrics and fiber tracking comparisons. The ultra-high gradients yielded substantial and immediate gains in the sensitivity through reduction of TE and improved signal detection and increased efficiency of the DSI or HARDI acquisition, accuracy and resolution of diffusion tractography, as defined by identification of known structure and fiber crossing.

K Setsompop, R Kimmlingen, E Eberlein, T Witzel, J Cohen-Adad, JA McNab, B Keil, MD Tisdall, P Hoecht, P Dietz, SF Cauley, V Tountcheva, V Matschl, VH Lenz, K Heberlein, A Potthast, H Thein, J Van Horn, A Toga, F Schmitt, D Lehne, BR Rosen, V Wedeen, and LL Wald. 2013. “Pushing the limits of in vivo diffusion MRI for the Human Connectome Project.” Neuroimage, 80, Pp. 220-33.Abstract

Perhaps more than any other "-omics" endeavor, the accuracy and level of detail obtained from mapping the major connection pathways in the living human brain with diffusion MRI depend on the capabilities of the imaging technology used. The current tools are remarkable; allowing the formation of an "image" of the water diffusion probability distribution in regions of complex crossing fibers at each of half a million voxels in the brain. Nonetheless our ability to map the connection pathways is limited by the image sensitivity and resolution, and also the contrast and resolution in encoding of the diffusion probability distribution. The goal of our Human Connectome Project (HCP) is to address these limiting factors by re-engineering the scanner from the ground up to optimize the high b-value, high angular resolution diffusion imaging needed for sensitive and accurate mapping of the brain's structural connections. Our efforts were directed based on the relative contributions of each scanner component. The gradient subsection was a major focus since gradient amplitude is central to determining the diffusion contrast, the amount of T2 signal loss, and the blurring of the water PDF over the course of the diffusion time. By implementing a novel 4-port drive geometry and optimizing size and linearity for the brain, we demonstrate a whole-body sized scanner with G(max) = 300 mT/m on each axis capable of the sustained duty cycle needed for diffusion imaging. The system is capable of slewing the gradient at a rate of 200 T/m/s as needed for the EPI image encoding. In order to enhance the efficiency of the diffusion sequence we implemented a FOV shifting approach to Simultaneous MultiSlice (SMS) EPI capable of unaliasing 3 slices excited simultaneously with a modest g-factor penalty allowing us to diffusion encode whole brain volumes with low TR and TE. Finally we combine the multi-slice approach with a compressive sampling reconstruction to sufficiently undersample q-space to achieve a DSI scan in less than 5 min. To augment this accelerated imaging approach we developed a 64-channel, tight-fitting brain array coil and show its performance benefit compared to a commercial 32-channel coil at all locations in the brain for these accelerated acquisitions. The technical challenges of developing the over-all system are discussed as well as results from SNR comparisons, ODF metrics and fiber tracking comparisons. The ultra-high gradients yielded substantial and immediate gains in the sensitivity through reduction of TE and improved signal detection and increased efficiency of the DSI or HARDI acquisition, accuracy and resolution of diffusion tractography, as defined by identification of known structure and fiber crossing.

Cornelius Eichner, Kourosh Jafari-Khouzani, Stephen F. Cauley, Himanshu Bhat, Pavlina Polaskova, Ovidiu C Andronesi, Otto Rapalino, Robert Turner, Lawrence L Wald, Steven Stufflebeam, and Kawin Setsompop. 2013. “Slice accelerated gradient-echo spin-echo dynamic susceptibility contrast imaging with blipped CAIPI for increased slice coverage.” Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 778, 3, Pp. 770–778. Publisher's VersionAbstract

PURPOSE: To improve slice coverage of gradient echo spin echo (GESE) sequences for dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) MRI using a simultaneous-multiple-slice (SMS) method. METHODS: Data were acquired on 3 Tesla (T) MR scanners with a 32-channel head coil. To evaluate use of SMS for DSC, an SMS GESE sequence with two-fold slice coverage and same temporal sampling was compared with a standard GESE sequence, both with 2× in-plane acceleration. A signal to noise ratio (SNR) comparison was performed on one healthy subject. Additionally, data with Gadolinium injection were collected on three patients with glioblastoma using both sequences, and perfusion analysis was performed on healthy tissues as well as on tumor. RESULTS: Retained SNR of SMS DSC is 90% for a gradient echo (GE) and 99% for a spin echo (SE) acquisition, compared with a standard acquisition without slice acceleration. Comparing cerebral blood volume maps, it was observed that the results of standard and SMS acquisitions are comparable for both GE and SE images. CONCLUSION: Two-fold slice accelerated DSC MRI achieves similar SNR and perfusion metrics as a standard acquisition, while allowing a significant increase in slice coverage of the brain. The results also point to a possibility to improve temporal sampling rate, while retaining the same slice coverage. Magn Reson Med, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

David A Feinberg and Kawin Setsompop. 2013. “Ultra-fast MRI of the human brain with simultaneous multi-slice imaging.” Journal of magnetic resonance (San Diego, Calif. : 1997), 229, Pp. 90–100. Publisher's VersionAbstract

The recent advancement of simultaneous multi-slice imaging using multiband excitation has dramatically reduced the scan time of the brain. The evolution of this parallel imaging technique began over a decade ago and through recent sequence improvements has reduced the acquisition time of multi-slice EPI by over ten fold. This technique has recently become extremely useful for (i) functional MRI studies improving the statistical definition of neuronal networks, and (ii) diffusion based fiber tractography to visualize structural connections in the human brain. Several applications and evaluations are underway which show promise for this family of fast imaging sequences.

David A Feinberg and Kawin Setsompop. 2013. “Ultra-fast MRI of the human brain with simultaneous multi-slice imaging.” J Magn Reson, 229, Pp. 90-100.Abstract

The recent advancement of simultaneous multi-slice imaging using multiband excitation has dramatically reduced the scan time of the brain. The evolution of this parallel imaging technique began over a decade ago and through recent sequence improvements has reduced the acquisition time of multi-slice EPI by over ten fold. This technique has recently become extremely useful for (i) functional MRI studies improving the statistical definition of neuronal networks, and (ii) diffusion based fiber tractography to visualize structural connections in the human brain. Several applications and evaluations are underway which show promise for this family of fast imaging sequences.

2012

Berkin Bilgic, Kawin Setsompop, Julien Cohen-Adad, Anastasia Yendiki, Lawrence L Wald, and Elfar Adalsteinsson. 2012. “Accelerated diffusion spectrum imaging with compressed sensing using adaptive dictionaries.” Magn Reson Med, 68, 6, Pp. 1747-54.Abstract

Diffusion spectrum imaging offers detailed information on complex distributions of intravoxel fiber orientations at the expense of extremely long imaging times (∼1 h). Recent work by Menzel et al. demonstrated successful recovery of diffusion probability density functions from sub-Nyquist sampled q-space by imposing sparsity constraints on the probability density functions under wavelet and total variation transforms. As the performance of compressed sensing reconstruction depends strongly on the level of sparsity in the selected transform space, a dictionary specifically tailored for diffusion probability density functions can yield higher fidelity results. To our knowledge, this work is the first application of adaptive dictionaries in diffusion spectrum imaging, whereby we reduce the scan time of whole brain diffusion spectrum imaging acquisition from 50 to 17 min while retaining high image quality. In vivo experiments were conducted with the 3T Connectome MRI. The root-mean-square error of the reconstructed "missing" diffusion images were calculated by comparing them to a gold standard dataset (obtained from acquiring 10 averages of diffusion images in these missing directions). The root-mean-square error from the proposed reconstruction method is up to two times lower than that of Menzel et al.'s method and is actually comparable to that of the fully-sampled 50 minute scan. Comparison of tractography solutions in 18 major white-matter pathways also indicated good agreement between the fully-sampled and 3-fold accelerated reconstructions. Further, we demonstrate that a dictionary trained using probability density functions from a single slice of a particular subject generalizes well to other slices from the same subject, as well as to slices from other subjects.

Berkin Bilgic, Kawin Setsompop, Julien Cohen-Adad, Anastasia Yendiki, Lawrence L Wald, and Elfar Adalsteinsson. 2012. “Accelerated diffusion spectrum imaging with compressed sensing using adaptive dictionaries.” Magnetic resonance in medicine : official journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine / Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 68, 6, Pp. 1747–54. Publisher's VersionAbstract

Diffusion spectrum imaging offers detailed information on complex distributions of intravoxel fiber orientations at the expense of extremely long imaging times (∼1 h). Recent work by Menzel et al. demonstrated successful recovery of diffusion probability density functions from sub-Nyquist sampled q-space by imposing sparsity constraints on the probability density functions under wavelet and total variation transforms. As the performance of compressed sensing reconstruction depends strongly on the level of sparsity in the selected transform space, a dictionary specifically tailored for diffusion probability density functions can yield higher fidelity results. To our knowledge, this work is the first application of adaptive dictionaries in diffusion spectrum imaging, whereby we reduce the scan time of whole brain diffusion spectrum imaging acquisition from 50 to 17 min while retaining high image quality. In vivo experiments were conducted with the 3T Connectome MRI. The root-mean-square error of the reconstructed "missing" diffusion images were calculated by comparing them to a gold standard dataset (obtained from acquiring 10 averages of diffusion images in these missing directions). The root-mean-square error from the proposed reconstruction method is up to two times lower than that of Menzel et al.'s method and is actually comparable to that of the fully-sampled 50 minute scan. Comparison of tractography solutions in 18 major white-matter pathways also indicated good agreement between the fully-sampled and 3-fold accelerated reconstructions. Further, we demonstrate that a dictionary trained using probability density functions from a single slice of a particular subject generalizes well to other slices from the same subject, as well as to slices from other subjects.

Berkin Bilgic, Kawin Setsompop, Julien Cohen-Adad, Van Wedeen, Lawrence L Wald, and Elfar Adalsteinsson. 2012. “Accelerated diffusion spectrum imaging with compressed sensing using adaptive dictionaries.” Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv, 15, Pt 3, Pp. 1-9.Abstract

Diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI) offers detailed information on complex distributions of intravoxel fiber orientations at the expense of extremely long imaging times (1 hour). It is possible to accelerate DSI by sub-Nyquist sampling of the q-space followed by nonlinear reconstruction to estimate the diffusion probability density functions (pdfs). Recent work by Menzel et al. imposed sparsity constraints on the pdfs under wavelet and total variation (TV) transforms. As the performance of Compressed Sensing (CS) reconstruction depends strongly on the level of sparsity in the selected transform space, a dictionary specifically tailored for sparse representation of diffusion pdfs can yield higher fidelity results. To our knowledge, this work is the first application of adaptive dictionaries in DSI, whereby we reduce the scan time of whole brain DSI acquisition from 50 to 17 min while retaining high image quality. In vivo experiments were conducted with the novel 3T Connectome MRI, whose strong gradients are particularly suited for DSI. The RMSE from the proposed reconstruction is up to 2 times lower than that of Menzel et al.'s method, and is actually comparable to that of the fully-sampled 50 minute scan. Further, we demonstrate that a dictionary trained using pdfs from a single slice of a particular subject generalizes well to other slices from the same subject, as well as to slices from another subject.

Berkin Bilgic, Kawin Setsompop, Julien Cohen-Adad, Van Wedeen, Lawrence L Wald, and Elfar Adalsteinsson. 2012. “Accelerated diffusion spectrum imaging with compressed sensing using adaptive dictionaries.” Medical image computing and computer-assisted intervention : MICCAI .. International Conference on Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention, 15, Pt 3, Pp. 1–9. Publisher's VersionAbstract

Diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI) offers detailed information on complex distributions of intravoxel fiber orientations at the expense of extremely long imaging times (1 hour). It is possible to accelerate DSI by sub-Nyquist sampling of the q-space followed by nonlinear reconstruction to estimate the diffusion probability density functions (pdfs). Recent work by Menzel et al. imposed sparsity constraints on the pdfs under wavelet and total variation (TV) transforms. As the performance of Compressed Sensing (CS) reconstruction depends strongly on the level of sparsity in the selected transform space, a dictionary specifically tailored for sparse representation of diffusion pdfs can yield higher fidelity results. To our knowledge, this work is the first application of adaptive dictionaries in DSI, whereby we reduce the scan time of whole brain DSI acquisition from 50 to 17 min while retaining high image quality. In vivo experiments were conducted with the novel 3T Connectome MRI, whose strong gradients are particularly suited for DSI. The RMSE from the proposed reconstruction is up to 2 times lower than that of Menzel et al.'s method, and is actually comparable to that of the fully-sampled 50 minute scan. Further, we demonstrate that a dictionary trained using pdfs from a single slice of a particular subject generalizes well to other slices from the same subject, as well as to slices from another subject.

Kawin Setsompop, Borjan A. BA Gagoski, Jonathan R. Polimeni, Thomas Witzel, Van J. Wedeen, and Lawrence L Wald. 2012. “Blipped-controlled aliasing in parallel imaging for simultaneous multislice echo planar imaging with reduced g-factor penalty.” Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 67, 5, Pp. 1210–24.Abstract

Simultaneous multislice Echo Planar Imaging (EPI) acquisition using parallel imaging can decrease the acquisition time for diffusion imaging and allow full-brain, high-resolution functional MRI (fMRI) acquisitions at a reduced repetition time (TR). However, the unaliasing of simultaneously acquired, closely spaced slices can be difficult, leading to a high g-factor penalty. We introduce a method to create interslice image shifts in the phase encoding direction to increase the distance between aliasing pixels. The shift between the slices is induced using sign- and amplitude-modulated slice-select gradient blips simultaneous with the EPI phase encoding blips. This achieves the desired shifts but avoids an undesired "tilted voxel" blurring artifact associated with previous methods. We validate the method in 3× slice-accelerated spin-echo and gradient-echo EPI at 3 T and 7 T using 32-channel radio frequency (RF) coil brain arrays. The Monte-Carlo simulated average g-factor penalty of the 3-fold slice-accelerated acquisition with interslice shifts is \textless1% at 3 T (compared with 32% without slice shift). Combining 3× slice acceleration with 2× inplane acceleration, the g-factor penalty becomes 19% at 3 T and 10% at 7 T (compared with 41% and 23% without slice shift). We demonstrate the potential of the method for accelerating diffusion imaging by comparing the fiber orientation uncertainty, where the 3-fold faster acquisition showed no noticeable degradation.

Kawin Setsompop, Borjan A Gagoski, Jonathan R Polimeni, Thomas Witzel, Van J Wedeen, and Lawrence L Wald. 2012. “Blipped-controlled aliasing in parallel imaging for simultaneous multislice echo planar imaging with reduced g-factor penalty.” Magn Reson Med, 67, 5, Pp. 1210-24.Abstract

Simultaneous multislice Echo Planar Imaging (EPI) acquisition using parallel imaging can decrease the acquisition time for diffusion imaging and allow full-brain, high-resolution functional MRI (fMRI) acquisitions at a reduced repetition time (TR). However, the unaliasing of simultaneously acquired, closely spaced slices can be difficult, leading to a high g-factor penalty. We introduce a method to create interslice image shifts in the phase encoding direction to increase the distance between aliasing pixels. The shift between the slices is induced using sign- and amplitude-modulated slice-select gradient blips simultaneous with the EPI phase encoding blips. This achieves the desired shifts but avoids an undesired "tilted voxel" blurring artifact associated with previous methods. We validate the method in 3× slice-accelerated spin-echo and gradient-echo EPI at 3 T and 7 T using 32-channel radio frequency (RF) coil brain arrays. The Monte-Carlo simulated average g-factor penalty of the 3-fold slice-accelerated acquisition with interslice shifts is <1% at 3 T (compared with 32% without slice shift). Combining 3× slice acceleration with 2× inplane acceleration, the g-factor penalty becomes 19% at 3 T and 10% at 7 T (compared with 41% and 23% without slice shift). We demonstrate the potential of the method for accelerating diffusion imaging by comparing the fiber orientation uncertainty, where the 3-fold faster acquisition showed no noticeable degradation.

Kawin Setsompop, J Cohen-Adad, Borjan A. Gagoski, T Raij, Anastasia Yendiki, Boris Keil, Van J. Wedeen, and Lawrence L Wald. 2012. “Improving diffusion MRI using simultaneous multi-slice echo planar imaging.” NeuroImage, 63, 1, Pp. 569–80.Abstract

In diffusion MRI, simultaneous multi-slice single-shot EPI acquisitions have the potential to increase the number of diffusion directions obtained per unit time, allowing more diffusion encoding in high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) acquisitions. Nonetheless, unaliasing simultaneously acquired, closely spaced slices with parallel imaging methods can be difficult, leading to high g-factor penalties (i.e., lower SNR). The CAIPIRINHA technique was developed to reduce the g-factor in simultaneous multi-slice acquisitions by introducing inter-slice image shifts and thus increase the distance between aliased voxels. Because the CAIPIRINHA technique achieved this by controlling the phase of the RF excitations for each line of k-space, it is not directly applicable to single-shot EPI employed in conventional diffusion imaging. We adopt a recent gradient encoding method, which we termed "blipped-CAIPI", to create the image shifts needed to apply CAIPIRINHA to EPI. Here, we use pseudo-multiple replica SNR and bootstrapping metrics to assess the performance of the blipped-CAIPI method in 3× simultaneous multi-slice diffusion studies. Further, we introduce a novel image reconstruction method to reduce detrimental ghosting artifacts in these acquisitions. We show that data acquisition times for Q-ball and diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI) can be reduced 3-fold with a minor loss in SNR and with similar diffusion results compared to conventional acquisitions.

K Setsompop, J Cohen-Adad, B a Gagoski, T Raij, A Yendiki, B Keil, VJ Wedeen, and LL Wald. 2012. “Improving diffusion MRI using simultaneous multi-slice echo planar imaging.” Neuroimage, 63, 1, Pp. 569-80.Abstract

In diffusion MRI, simultaneous multi-slice single-shot EPI acquisitions have the potential to increase the number of diffusion directions obtained per unit time, allowing more diffusion encoding in high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) acquisitions. Nonetheless, unaliasing simultaneously acquired, closely spaced slices with parallel imaging methods can be difficult, leading to high g-factor penalties (i.e., lower SNR). The CAIPIRINHA technique was developed to reduce the g-factor in simultaneous multi-slice acquisitions by introducing inter-slice image shifts and thus increase the distance between aliased voxels. Because the CAIPIRINHA technique achieved this by controlling the phase of the RF excitations for each line of k-space, it is not directly applicable to single-shot EPI employed in conventional diffusion imaging. We adopt a recent gradient encoding method, which we termed "blipped-CAIPI", to create the image shifts needed to apply CAIPIRINHA to EPI. Here, we use pseudo-multiple replica SNR and bootstrapping metrics to assess the performance of the blipped-CAIPI method in 3× simultaneous multi-slice diffusion studies. Further, we introduce a novel image reconstruction method to reduce detrimental ghosting artifacts in these acquisitions. We show that data acquisition times for Q-ball and diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI) can be reduced 3-fold with a minor loss in SNR and with similar diffusion results compared to conventional acquisitions.

2011

Yogesh Rathi, O Michailovich, K Setsompop, S Bouix, ME Shenton, and CF Westin. 2011. “Sparse multi-shell diffusion imaging.” Medical image computing and computer-assisted intervention : MICCAI .. International Conference on Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention, 14, Pt 2, Pp. 58–65. Publisher's VersionAbstract

Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) is an important tool that allows non-invasive investigation of neural architecture of the brain. The data obtained from these in-vivo scans provides important information about the integrity and connectivity of neural fiber bundles in the brain. A multi-shell imaging (MSI) scan can be of great value in the study of several psychiatric and neurological disorders, yet its usability has been limited due to the long acquisition times required. A typical MSI scan involves acquiring a large number of gradient directions for the 2 (or more) spherical shells (several b-values), making the acquisition time significantly long for clinical application. In this work, we propose to use results from the theory of compressive sampling and determine the minimum number of gradient directions required to attain signal reconstruction similar to a traditional MSI scan. In particular, we propose a generalization of the single shell spherical ridgelets basis for sparse representation of multi shell signals. We demonstrate its efficacy on several synthetic and in-vivo data sets and perform quantitative comparisons with solid spherical harmonics based representation. Our preliminary results show that around 20-24 directions per shell are enough for robustly recovering the diffusion propagator.