Welcome to the Harvard Environmental Economics Program's Policy Cast. "Environmental Insights" is a podcast at the intersection of economics and environmental policy. HEEP Director, Robert Stavins, serves as host as he interviews people working at the interface between economics and the environment. People working in government, the private sector (and NGOs), and academia will serve as guests as they share their unique insight on the current state of affairs in environmental economics.
The podcast is intended to inform listeners about important issues relating to an economic perspective on developments in environmental policy, including – but not limited to – the design and implementation of market-based approaches to environmental protection.
David Victor, a professor of international relations at the University of California, San Diego, expressed his optimism for European leadership on climate policy. Victor, who serves as co-chair of the Brookings Institution Initiative on Energy and Climate and served as a coordinating lead author of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), voiced his concern about the uncertainty surrounding climate policy at a time when countries are having to direct their resources into large-scale economic stimulus programs to help soften the blow from the coronavirus pandemic. And many questions remain, he said, about public confidence in federal leadership and in the capacity for governments to act effectively right now.
Vicky Bailey, who has held high-level national and international corporate, executive, and government positions in the energy sector for more than 30 years, shared her thoughts on energy policy, climate change policy, the impacts of COVID-19, and systemic racial injustice in the newest episode of “Environmental Insights: Discussions on Policy and Practice from the Harvard Environmental Economics Program."
Bailey, who served as a commissioner on the Indiana Utility Regulatory Commission, a member of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, president and CEO of PSI Energy Inc., and Assistant Secretary of Energy in the George W. Bush Administration, explained that the COVID-19 pandemic is changing the way people work and live, and thereby having profound effects on energy demand.
Bailey also spoke of the national turmoil and introspection caused by the tragic death of George Floyd, a black man killed by police brutality in May in a violent confrontation that was taped and later viewed by millions of Americans.
David Hone, Chief Climate Change Advisor at Shell International, provided his insights into changes in the oil and gas industry, international dimensions of climate change policy, and the prospects for emissions trading. Hone, who has a degree in chemical engineering, has worked in the oil and gas industry for more than 40 years, the past 20 focusing almost exclusively on the challenge of addressing global climate change. He concurrently serves as a board member of both the International Emissions Trading Association (IETA) and the Center for Climate and Energy Solutions (C2ES). In the podcast, Hone spoke of the efforts oil and gas companies are taking to increase investments in alternative fuels in order to reduce global emissions.
Kelley Kizzier, who served as a lead European Union (EU) negotiator in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), expressed her hopes for progress on international climate policy in the newest episode of “Environmental Insights: Discussions on Policy and Practice from the Harvard Environmental Economics Program."
Kizzier has worked on EU and international climate issues for many years, playing a major role in negotiating issues related to international cooperation through carbon markets, transparency and accounting under the UNFCCC, the Kyoto Protocol, and ultimately, the Paris Agreement. She recently served as the UNFCCC co-chair for the UN climate negotiations regarding Article 6 of the Paris Agreement, and now serves as Associate Vice President for International Climate at the Environmental Defense Fund.
Richard Schmalensee, the Howard W. Johnson Professor of Management, and Professor of Economics Emeritus at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, reflects on his many years working on environmental policy in public service and academia.
Schmalensee’s research and teaching have spanned several areas of application of industrial organization, including antitrust, regulatory, energy and environmental policies. He served as Dean of the MIT Sloan School of Management for 10 years and director of the MIT Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research for 12 years. He also served as a member of the White House Counsel of Economic Advisors from 1989-1991, at a time when the George H.W. Bush Administration developed and then worked with Congress to pass the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990.
Following his tenure at the White House, Schmalensee served on the Environmental Economics Advisory Committee at the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and later on the National Climate Assessment Development & Advisory Committee.
Sue Biniaz, former lead climate negotiator for the United States, shared her thoughts on the postponement of COP-26, and on the possible re-engagement of the U.S. in the international effort to address climate change.
Biniaz is currently a lecturer at Yale Law School, where she teaches a course on negotiating international agreements. Prior to that, she served for more than 30 years in the State Department's Legal Adviser's Office, where she was a Deputy Legal Adviser, as well as the lead climate lawyer and a lead climate negotiator from 1989 until early 2017.
Biniaz departed the State Department prior to COP-25 in Madrid last December, a meeting that ended without a resolution to Article 6, the section of the Paris Agreement that allows for emissions trading.
Rebecca Henderson, the John and Natty McArthur University Professor at Harvard University, shared her perspectives on how large organizations are changing in response to the coronavirus pandemic and climate change.
Columbia University Professor Scott Barrett assessed the massive global efforts underway to address COVID-19 and the potential impacts of the pandemic on our lives in the future in a special episode of “Environmental Insights: Discussions on Policy and Practice from the Harvard Environmental Economics Program,” a podcast produced by the Harvard Environmental Economics Program. Listen to the interview here.
Barrett, the Lenfest-Earth Institute Professor of Natural Resource Economics at the School of International and Public Affairs (SIPA) & Earth Institute at Columbia University, has focused his research on transnational, regional, and global environmental issues that can only be addressed by international cooperation. His research touches on issues relating to climate change, infectious diseases, international environmental agreements, global public goods, trade and environment, ecosystems, environment and development, and oceans.
The international global effort to contain COVID-19 will be a “persistent challenge,” Barrett remarked in the interview, and will result in “fundamental changes in society.”
Harvard Kennedy School Professor of the Practice Joseph Aldy reflected on his service in the Obama Administration and on current challenges facing lawmakers as they work on climate change policy in the latest episode of “Environmental Insights: Discussions on Policy and Practice from the Harvard Environmental Economics Program,” a podcast produced by the Harvard Environmental Economics Program. Listen to the interview here.
Aldy worked in the White House during the first two years of the Obama Administration, helping direct the administration’s climate change policy while serving as Special Assistant to the President for Energy and Environment. In the podcast he remarked that, “the most challenging aspect of that job is recognizing that your to-do list at 7:30 or 8 in the morning may get wiped out by something unexpected that happens that day.” As an example, he mentioned the devastating Deep Water Horizon oil spill in April 2010, which resulted in new government regulations designed to prevent such catastrophes in future years.
David Keith, Gordon McKay Professor of Applied Physics at the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, and Professor of Public Policy at Harvard Kennedy School, discussed his groundbreaking research and policy work in the field of solar geoengineering in the newest episode of “Environmental Insights: Discussions on Policy and Practice from the Harvard Environmental Economics Program.”
Keith is renowned for his work at the intersection of climate science, energy technology, and public policy over the past 25 years. A Canadian native, Keith is faculty director of Harvard’s Solar Geoengineering Research Program, a Harvard-wide interfaculty research initiative which aims to further critical research on both the science and governance of solar geoengineering. While best known for his work on geoengineering, Keith has also conducted extensive research on carbon capture and storage, and is the founder of Carbon Engineering, a company which develops technologies for direct air capture.
Jos Delbeke is Professor at the European University Institute in Florence and at the KU Leuven in Belgium. He served as Director-General of the European Commission’s DG Climate Action from 2010 until 2018, and was one of the primary architects of the European Union’s climate and energy targets for 2020 and 2030. He also served for several years as the European Commission’s chief negotiator at the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Conference of the Parties. An economist, Delbeke has long advocated for the use of market-based instruments and cost-benefit analysis to address environmental challenges. In this episode of Environmental Insights, Delbeke recounts how carbon pricing has evolved over time and voices his optimism for further international efforts to combat climate change.
Paul Watkinson is chief negotiator and head of the climate negotiations team for the French ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development and Energy. He was a member of the French inter-ministerial team that prepared and ran the 2015 United Nations Climate Conference in Paris (COP21), with responsibility for coordinating the negotiation of the Paris Agreement. He has long experience in the climate field and has been a member of the French delegation to the UN climate talks since 2000, directing the delegation for much of that time. He was an advisor to the Moroccan minister of the environment who chaired the 2001 Marrakech conference that successively adopted the rule-book for the Kyoto Protocol. He chaired the European Union’s working party on climate change under the French EU Presidency in 2008. And he was one of the EU’s lead negotiators at the conferences of Copenhagen, Cancún, Durban, Doha and Warsaw, with particular responsibility for issues around finance, adaptation and the way in which climate policies interact with trade and impact third parties. He has dual French and British nationality and has lived, studied and worked in both countries.
A full transcript of the Environmental Insights Podcast interview with Paul Watkinson is available here.
Andrei Marcu, founder and executive director of the European Roundtable on Climate Change and Sustainable Transition, provided his insights on the UN Climate Change conference taking place in Madrid this week in the newest episode of “Environmental Insights: Discussions on Policy and Practice from the Harvard Environmental Economics Program,” a podcast produced by the Harvard Environmental Economics Program. Listen to the interview here.
Hosted by Robert N. Stavins, A.J. Meyer Professor of Energy and Economic Development at Harvard Kennedy School and director of the Harvard Environmental Economics Program, Environmental Insights is intended to promote public discourse on important issues at the intersection of economics and environmental policy.
Lord Stern of Brentford, CH, Kt, FBA, FRS
Lord Stern is the IG Patel Professor of Economics and Government, Chairman of the Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment, and Head of the India Observatory at the London School of Economics. He was President of the Royal Economic Society (2018-19) and President of the British Academy (2013- 2017). He was elected Fellow of the Royal Society (June 2014). He has held academic appointments in the UK at Oxford, Warwick, and the LSE, and abroad at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the Ecole Polytechnique, and the Collège de France in Paris, the Indian Statistical Institute in Bangalore and Delhi, and the Peopleʼs University of China in Beijing. He was Chief Economist of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, 1994-1999, and Chief Economist and Senior Vice President at the World Bank, 2000-2003. He was knighted in 2004, made a cross-bench life peer in 2007, and appointed Companion of Honour in 2017 for services to economics, international relations, and tackling climate change.
Lord Stern was Second Permanent Secretary to Her Majesty’s Treasury from 2003-2005; Director of Policy and Research for the Prime Minister’s Commission for Africa from 2004-2005; Head of the Stern Review on the Economics of Climate Change, published in 2006; and Head of the Government Economic Service from 2003-2007.
He has published more than 15 books and 100 articles. His most recent book is “Why Are We Waiting? The Logic, Urgency and Promise of Tackling Climate Change” (MIT Press, 2015). His next book “How Lives Change: Palanpur, India and Development Economics” (with Himanshu, JNU, and Peter Lanjouw, Free University of Amsterdam) published by Oxford University Press in 2018.
The inaugural guest for the podcast is Gina McCarthy, professor of the practice of public health at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, director of the Center for Climate Health, and the Global Environment, and former administrator of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The interview with Gina touches on her many years of experience in community health, state government, and, of course, her years at EPA, where she focused on domestic initiatives relating to public health and the environment and work in the international domain. She also talks about her relatively new role as director of the Center for Climate Health, and the Global Environment at the T.H. Chan School of Public Health.