Stavins, Robert N, Alexander F Wagner, and Gernot Wagner. “Interpreting Sustainability in Economic Terms: Dynamic Efficiency Plus Intergenerational Equity.” Economics Letters 79 (2003): 339–343. Publisher's VersionAbstract

Economists have confined the concept of ‘sustainability’ to intertemporal distributional equity. We propose a broader definition, combining dynamic efficiency and intergenerational equity, and relate it to two concepts from neoclassical economics: potential Pareto-improvements and inter-personal compensation.



Stavins, Robert N. “Taking Fish to Market.” Forbes (2003): 40. Publisher's Version op-ed_in_forbes_on_fisheries_april_28_2003.pdf


Jaffe, Adam B, Richard G Newell, and Robert N Stavins. “Technological Change and the Environment.” In Handbook of Environmental Economics, Vol. 1, edited by K-G Mäler and JR Vincent, 1:461–516. Amsterdam and Boston: Elsevier Science B.V. 2003.Abstract

Environmental policy discussions increasingly focus on issues related to technological change. This is partly because the environmental consequences of social activity are frequently affected by the rate and direction of technological change, and partly because environmental policy interventions can themselves create constraints and incentives that have significant effects on the path of technological progress. This chapter summarizes current thinking on technological change in the broader economics literature, surveys the growing economic literature on the interaction between technology and the environment, and explores the normative implications of these analyses. We begin with a brief overview of the economics of technological change, and then examine theory and empirical evidence on invention, innovation, and diffusion and the related literature on the effects of environmental policy on the creation of new, environmentally friendly technology. We conclude with suggestions for further research on technological change and the environment.



Aldy, Joseph E, Scott Barrett, and Robert N Stavins. “Thirteen Plus One: A Comparison of Global Climate Policy Architectures.” Climate Policy 3 (2003): 373–397.Abstract

We critically review the Kyoto Protocol and thirteen alternative policy architectures for addressing the threat of global climate change. We employ six criteria to evaluate the policy proposals: environmental outcome, dynamic efficiency, cost-effectiveness, equity, flexibility in the presence of new information, and incentives for participation and compliance. The Kyoto Protocol does not fare well on a number of criteria, but none of the alternative proposals fare well along all six dimensions. We identify several major themes among the alternative proposals: Kyoto is “too little, too fast”; developing countries (DCs) should play a more substantial role and receive incentives to participate; implementation should focus on market-based approaches, especially those with price mechanisms; and participation and compliance incentives are inadequately addressed by most proposals. Our investigation reveals tensions among several of the evaluative criteria, such as between environmental outcome and efficiency, and between cost-effectiveness and incentives for participation and compliance.



Stavins, Robert N. “Affordability Criteria for Small Drinking Water Systems.” Washington, D.C. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Science Advisory Board, 2002. sab_report_on_affordability.pdf


Stavins, Robert N. “A Better Way to Regulate Fishing.” The Boston Globe (2002). op-ed_on_itqs_in_boston_globe_dec_2_2002.pdf


Stavins, Robert N. “Brayton Point Power Plant: Weigh Costs to Benefit.” Boston Business Journal (2002). Publisher's Version boston_business_journal.june22.2002.op-ed.pdf


Goulder, Lawrence H, and Robert N Stavins. “Discounting: An eye on the future.” Nature 419 (2002): 673–674. Publisher's VersionAbstract

Nature is the international weekly journal of science: a magazine style journal that publishes full-length research papers in all disciplines of science, as well as News and Views, reviews, news, features, commentaries, web focuses and more, covering all branches of science and how science impacts upon all aspects of society and life.



Plantinga, Andrew J, Ruben N Lubowski, and Robert N Stavins. “The Effects of Potential Land Development on Agricultural Land Prices.” Journal of Urban Economics 52 (2002): 561–581. Publisher's VersionAbstract

We conduct a national-scale analysis of the determinants of agricultural land values. The theoretical basis for the study is a spatial city model with stochastic returns to future land development. The empirical model of agricultural land prices is estimated with a cross-section on approximately three thousand counties in the contiguous US. The results provide evidence that option values associated with irreversible and uncertain land development are capitalized into current farmland values. For each county, we decompose the current agricultural land value into components measuring rents from agricultural production and rents from future land development.



Jaffe, Adam B, Richard G Newell, and Robert N Stavins. “Environmental Policy and Technological Change.” Environmental and Resource Economics 22 (2002): 41–70. Publisher's VersionAbstract

The relationship between technological changeand environmental policy has receivedincreasing attention from scholars and policymakers alike over the past ten years. This ispartly because the environmental impacts ofsocial activity are significantly affected bytechnological change, and partly becauseenvironmental policy interventions themselvescreate new constraints and incentives thataffect the process of technologicaldevelopments. Our central purpose in thisarticle is to provide environmental economistswith a useful guide to research ontechnological change and the analytical toolsthat can be used to explore further theinteraction between technology and theenvironment. In Part 1 of the article, weprovide an overview of analytical frameworksfor investigating the economics oftechnological change, highlighting key issuesfor the researcher. In Part 2, we turn ourattention to theoretical analysis of theeffects of environmental policy ontechnological change, and in Part 3, we focuson issues related to the empirical analysis oftechnology innovation and diffusion. Finally,we conclude in Part 4 with some additionalsuggestions for research.



Stavins, Robert N. “Importance of Maintaining the Annual Pollution Abatement Cost and Expenditures (PACE) Survey.” Washington, D.C. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Science Advisory Board, 2002. sab_report_on_pace_2.pdf


Donahue, John D, Joseph S Nye, Richard Zeckhauser, Peter Frumkin, Steven Kelman, Archon Fung, Frederick F Schauer, et al.Lessons from the American Experiment with Market-Based Environmental Policies.” In Market-Based Governance: Supply Side, Demand Side, Upside, and Downside, 173–200. Washington D.C. The Brookings Institution, 2002. lessons_from_the_american_experiment_with_market-based_environmental_policies.pdf


Stavins, Robert N, and Howard K Gruenspecht. “A Level Field on Pollution at Power Plants.” The Boston Globe (2002). op-ed_on_nsr_in_botston_globe_jan_26_2002.pdf


Stavins, Robert N, and Robert W Hahn. “National Environmental Policy During the Clinton Years.” In American Economic Policy in the 1990s, edited by Jeffrey A Frankel and Peter R Orszag, 583–660. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, 2002.Abstract

Note: For a PDF file that can be downloaded, please see "Environmental Regulation During the 1990s: A Retrospective Analysis," Harvard Environmental Law Review, above, in section titled, "Academic Journals.


Stavins, Robert N, and Howard K Gruenspecht. “New Source Review Under the Clean Air Act: Ripe for Reform.” Resources (2002): 19–23. new_source_review_in_resources.pdf


Stavins, Robert N. “An Approach to Developing a Research Agenda for Environmental Economics.” Washington, D.C. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Science Advisory Board, 2001. sab_report_on_research.pdf


Stavins, Robert N. “Economic Analysis of Global Climate Change Policy: A Primer.” In Climate Change: Science, Strategies, & Solutions, edited by Eileen Claussen, Vicki Arroyo Cochran, and Debra P Davis. Boston, Massachusetts: Brill Publishing, 2001. economic_analysis_of_global_climate.pdf


Environmental Economics and Public Policy: Selected Papers of Robert N. Stavins, 1988-1999
Stavins, Robert N. Environmental Economics and Public Policy: Selected Papers of Robert N. Stavins, 1988-1999. Northampton, Massachusetts: Edward Elgar Publishing, Inc. 2001.


Stavins, Robert N. “Give Bush Time on Climate Issues.” The Boston Globe (2001). op-ed_on_bush_climate_policy_in_boston_globe_april_4_2001.pdf


Stavins, Robert N. “Market Incentives.” Washington, D.C. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Science Advisory Board, 2001. sab_report_on_mbis.pdf