Stavins, Robert N. The Welfare Economics of Alternative Renewable Resource Strategies: Forested Wetlands and Agricultural Production. New York: Garland Publishing, Inc. 1990.
Stavins, Robert N. “Alternative Renewable Resource Strategies: A Simulation of Optimal Use.” Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 19 (1990): 143–159. Publisher's VersionAbstract

The depletion of forested wetlands is a pressing environmental concern, but has wetland depletion and conversion to agricultural cropland been excessive? A dynamic analysis of resource exploitation in the presence of environmental consequences is required. The structure and parameters of a model of socially optimal wetland use are found to bear a well-defined relationship to those which emerge from a private-market model of wetland exploitation, providing a basis for internalizing environmental externalities and for identifying optimal resource-exploitation strategies. Empirical analysis focuses on the area of severest wetland losses in the United States, the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Plain.



Stavins, Robert N. “Environmental Accounting: Greening the Profit Motive.” The World Paper (1990): 1. world_paper_september_1990.pdf


Stavins, Robert N. “Innovative Policies for Sustainable Development: The Role of Economic Incentives for Environmental Protection.” Harvard Public Policy Review 7 (1990): 13–25. innovative_policies.pdf


Stavins, Robert N, and Adam B Jaffe. “Unintended Impacts of Public Investments on Private Decisions: The Depletion of Forested Wetlands.” The American Economic Review 80 (1990): 337–352. Publisher's VersionAbstract

By affecting relative economic returns, public infrastructure investments can induce major changes in private land use. We find that 30 percent of forested wetland depletion in the Mississippi Valley has resulted from private decisions induced by federal flood-control projects, despite explicit federal policy to preserve wetlands. Our model aggregates individual land-use decisions using a parametric distribution of unobserved land quality; dynamic simulations are used to quantify the impacts on wetlands of federal projects and other factors.



Stavins, Robert N. “Clean Profits: Using Economic Incentives to Protect the Environment.” Policy Review 48 (1989): 58–63. clean_profits.pdf


Stavins, Robert N. “Harnessing Market Forces to Protect the Environment.” Environment: Science and Policy for Sustainable Development 31 (1989): 5–35. Publisher's Version harnessing_market_forces.pdf


Stavins, Robert N. “Project 88 Conference, Harnessing Market Forces to Protect the Environment.” Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard Kennedy School, 1989. project_88_conference_f-4.pdf


Stavins, Robert. “A Model of English Demographic Changes: 1573–1873.” Explorations in Economic History 25 (1988): 98–116. Publisher's VersionAbstract

This paper documents an analysis of English demographic change over the period 1573–1873. A simultaneous equations model is developed in order to test four alternative demographic theories—the constant equilibrium wage theory, the constant fertility theory, Lee's original (1973) synthesis theory, and a new, composite theory. Each is a special case of a general demographic model which provides both for exogenous technological change and for endogenous migration behavior. Two-stage least-squares estimation yields parameter estimates and test statistics, which provide evidence of the superiority of the composite theory of demographic change. By statistically affirming the composite theory of demographic change, this paper confirms that the mortality level played a dominant role in English demographic change during the preindustrial period. The analysis also provides support, however, for the classical notion that shifts in the labor demand function were a dominant cause of long-run population changes, subsequent to the beginning of British industrialization.



Stavins, Robert N. “Project 88 - Harnessing Market Forces to Protect Our Environment: Initiatives for the New President. A Public Policy Study sponsored by Senator Timothy E. Wirth, Colorado, and Senator John Heinz, Pennsylvania.” Washington, D.C. 1988. project_88-1.pdf


Stavins, Robert N. “The Welfare Economics of Alternative Renewable Resource Strategies: Forested Wetlands and Agricultural Production.” Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University, 1988. stavins_1988_phd_thesis_title.pdf


Stavins, Robert N. “Conversion of Forested Wetlands to Agricultural Uses.” New York: Environmental Defense Fund, 1987.
Stavins, Robert N. “Trading Conservation Investments for Water.” Berkeley, California: Environmental Defense Fund, 1983.
Stavins, Robert N. “The Tuolumne River: Preservation or Development?” Berkeley, CA: Environmental Defense Fund, 1983. the_tuolumne_river_preservation_or_development_1984.pdf