Surprising properties of doped Mott insulators are at the heart of many quantum materials, including transition metal oxides and organic materials. The key to unraveling complex phenomena observed in these systems lies in understanding the interplay of spin and charge degrees of freedom. One of the most debated questions concerns the nature of charge carriers in a background of fluctuating spins. To shed new light on this problem, we suggest a simplified model with mixed dimensionality, where holes move through a Mott insulator unidirectionally while spin exchange interactions are two dimensional. By studying individual holes in this system, we find direct evidence for the formation of mesonic bound states of holons and spinons, connected by a string of displaced spins – a precursor of the spin-charge separation obtained in the 1D limit of the model. Our predictions can be tested using ultracold atoms in a quantum gas microscope, allowing to directly image spinons and holons, and reveal the short-range hidden string order which we predict in this model.
Streptomyces ghanaensis ATCC14672 is remarkable for its production of phosphoglycolipid compounds, moenomycins, which serve as a blueprint for the development of a novel class of antibiotics based on inhibition of peptidoglycan glycosyltransferases. Here we employed mariner transposon (Tn) mutagenesis to find new regulatory genes essential for moenomycin production. We generated a library of 3000 mutants which were screened for altered antibiotic activity. Our focus centred on a single mutant, HIM5, which accumulated lower amounts of moenomycin and was impaired in morphogenesis as compared to the parental strain. HIM5 carried the Tn insertion within gene ssfg_01967 for putative tRNA (N6-isopentenyl adenosine(37)-C2)-methylthiotransferase, or MiaB, and led to a reduced level of thiomethylation at position 37 in the anticodon of S. ghanaensis transfer ribonucleic acid (tRNA). It is likely that the mutant phenotype of HIM5 stems from the way in which ssfg_01967::Tn influences translation of the rare leucine codon UUA in several genes for moenomycin production and life cycle progression in S. ghanaensis. This is the first report showing that quantitative changes in tRNA modification status in Streptomyces have physiological consequences.