Moenomycins (Mm) - phosphoglycolipid compounds produced by ATCC14672 - are considered a promising model for development of novel class of antibiotics. In this regard it is important to generate Mm overproducing strains which would be a basis for economically justified production of this antibiotic. In this work a set of genes for synthesis and reception of low-molecular weight signaling molecules (LSM) in ATCC14672 were described and their significance for Mm production was studied. The ATCC14672 genome carries structural and regulatory genes for production of LSMs of avenolide and γ-butyrolactone families. Additional copies of LSM biosynthetic genes and did not alter the Mm production level. ATCC14672 LSMs are not capable of restoring the sporulation of butyrolactone-nonproducing mutant of . Likewise, while the heterologous host 1326 produced Mm, its mutant M707 (deficient in the butyrolactone synthase gene ) did not. Thus, while the natural level of LSMs production by ATCC14672 does not limit Mm synthesis, the former is essential for the synthesis of moenomycins.
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Surprising properties of doped Mott insulators are at the heart of many quantum materials, including transition metal oxides and organic materials. The key to unraveling complex phenomena observed in these systems lies in understanding the interplay of spin and charge degrees of freedom. One of the most debated questions concerns the nature of charge carriers in a background of fluctuating spins. To shed new light on this problem, we suggest a simplified model with mixed dimensionality, where holes move through a Mott insulator unidirectionally while spin exchange interactions are two dimensional. By studying individual holes in this system, we find direct evidence for the formation of mesonic bound states of holons and spinons, connected by a string of displaced spins – a precursor of the spin-charge separation obtained in the 1D limit of the model. Our predictions can be tested using ultracold atoms in a quantum gas microscope, allowing to directly image spinons and holons, and reveal the short-range hidden string order which we predict in this model.