Working Paper
Zlatev, J. J., & Rogers, T. (Working Paper). Returnable Reciprocity: When optional gifts increase compliance.Abstract


Classic takes on the norm of reciprocity find that receipt of a gift increases compliance with a later equest. We find that giving people the opportunity to return this gift surprisingly increases compliance rates, a phenomenon we call “returnable reciprocity”. Across four studies (N = 3,786), we find evidence that returnable reciprocity leads to greater compliance in a large-scale field experiment (Study 1), as well as in conceptual lab replications (Studies 2 and 3) involving different domains. We provide evidence that this increased compliance may be due to increased feelings of guilt for non-compliance (Study 3). Finally, we find that while the economic cost of returnable reciprocity is negligible, it may create additional psychological or societal costs that must be taken into account when assessing its social welfare implications (Study 4). We end by discussing the theoretical, practical and social welfare implications of this novel compliance strategy.




Cialdini, R., Lasky-Fink, J., & Rogers, T. (Working Paper). Poison Parasite Defense: Turning Frequently Encountered Duplicitous Mass Communications into Self-Negating Memory Retrieval Cues. poison_parasite_counter_-_main_paper.pdf poison_parasite_counter_-_supplement.pdf
Lasky-Fink, J., Robinson, C., Chang, H., & Rogers, T. (Working Paper). Using Behavioral Insights to Improve School Administrative Communications:The Case of Truancy Notifications. improving_school_administrative_communications_-_case_of_truancy_notifications.pdf improving_school_administrative_communications_-_supplement.pdf
Bergman, P., Lasky-Fink, J., & Rogers, T. (2019). Simplification and defaults affect adoption and impact of technology, but decision makers do not realize it. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes. simplification_and_defaults_vf.pdf
Dorison, C. A., Minson, J. A., & Rogers, T. (2019). Selective exposure partly relies on faulty affective forecasts. Cognition , 188 (July 2019), 98-107. Selective Exposure.pdf
Robinson, C. D., Gallus, J., Lee, M. G., & Rogers, T. (2019). The Demotivating Effect (and Unintended Message) of Awards. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes. the_demotivating_effect_and_unintended_message_of_awards_vf_01.pdf
Gottfried, M., & Hutt, E. (2019). Absent from School: Understanding and Addressing Student Absenteeism. Harvard Education Press , (February 2019). gottfried_afterword.pdf
Rogers, T., & Feller, A. (2018). Reducing Student Absences at Scale by Targeting Parents' Misbeliefs. Nature Human Behavior. Publisher's Version rogers_feller_absenteeism.pdf SDP Supplement 2.pdf supplementary.pdf
Rogers, T., Goldstein, N. J., & Fox, C. R. (2018). Social Mobilization. Annual Review of Psychology , 2018 (69), 357-81. rogers_goldstein_fox.2018.pdf
Robinson, C. D., Lee, M. G., Dearing, E., & Rogers, T. (2018). Reducing Student Absenteeism in the Early Grades by Targeting Parental Beliefs. American Educational Research Journal , 26 (3), 353-383. reducing_student_absenteeism.pdf reducing_student_absenteeism_-_supplemental_analyses.pdf
Robinson, C. D., Pons, G. A., Duckworth, A. L., & Rogers, T. (2018). Some Middle School Students Want Behavior Commitment Devices (but Take-Up Does Not Affect Their Behavior). Frontiers In Psychology , February 2018 (Vol 9, Article 206). frontiersinpsych2018middleschoolcommitmentdevice.pdf
Tannenbaum, D., Fox, C. R., & Rogers, T. (2017). On the misplaced politics of behavioural policy interventions. Nature Human Behaviour , 1 (10 July 2017), 1-7. tannenbaum_fox_rogers.2017.pdf
Hauser, O. P., Linos, E., & Rogers, T. (2017). Innovation with field experiments: Studying organizational behaviors in actual organizations. Research in Organizational Behavior , 37 (2017), 185-198. Publisher's Version
Rogers, T., Moore, D. A., & Norton, M. I. (2017). The Belief in a Favorable Future. Psychological Science , 28 (9), 1290-1301. the_belief_in_a_favorable_future_public_copy.pdf
Rogers, T., Green, D. P., Ternovski, J., & Young, C. F. (2017). Social pressure and voting: A field experiment conducted in a high-salience election. Electoral Studies , 46 (2017), 87-100. rogers_et_al._social_pressure_and_voting.pdf
Gehlbach, H., Brinkworth, M. E., King, A. M., Hsu, L. M., McIntyre, J., & Rogers, T. (2016). Creating birds of similar feathers: Leveraging similarity to improve teacher-student relationships and academic achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology , 108 (3), 342-352. creating_birds.pdf
Rogers, T., Brinke, L., & Carney, D. (2016). Unacquainted callers can predict which citizens will vote over and above citizens' stated self-predictions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science , 113 (23), 6449-6453. rogers_brinke_carney_unacquainted_callers.pdf
Rogers, T., & Milkman, K. L. (2016). Reminders Through Association. Psychological Science , 27 (7), 973-986. rogers_milkman_rta.pdf
Rogers, T., Ternovski, J., & Yoeli, E. (2016). Potential follow-up increases private contributions to public good. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science , 113 (19), 5218-5220. rogers_ternovski_yoeli_potential_follow-up.pdf
Rogers, T., & Feller, A. (2016). Discouraged by Peer Excellence: Exposure to Exemplary Peer Performance Causes Quitting. Psychological Science , 27 (3), 365-374. discouraged_by_peer_excellence_public_copy.pdf