OBJECTIVE: A major impediment to translating chemoprevention to clinical practice has been lack of intermediate biomarkers. We previously reported that rectal interrogation with low-coherence enhanced backscattering spectroscopy (LEBS) detected microarchitectural manifestations of field carcinogenesis. We now wanted to ascertain if reversion of two LEBS markers spectral slope (SPEC) and fractal dimension (FRAC) could serve as a marker for chemopreventive efficacy.
DESIGN: We conducted a multicentre, prospective, randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled, clinical trial in subjects with a history of colonic neoplasia who manifested altered SPEC/FRAC in histologically normal colonic mucosa. Subjects (n=79) were randomised to 325 mg aspirin or placebo. The primary endpoint changed in FRAC and SPEC spectral markers after 3 months. Mucosal levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT)1A6 genotypes were planned secondary endpoints.
RESULTS: At 3 months, the aspirin group manifested alterations in SPEC (48.9%, p=0.055) and FRAC (55.4%, p=0.200) with the direction towards non-neoplastic status. As a measure of aspirin's pharmacological efficacy, we assessed changes in rectal PGE2 levels and noted that it correlated with SPEC and FRAC alterations (R=-0.55, p=0.01 and R=0.57, p=0.009, respectively) whereas there was no significant correlation in placebo specimens. While UGT1A6 subgroup analysis did not achieve statistical significance, the changes in SPEC and FRAC to a less neoplastic direction occurred only in the variant consonant with epidemiological evidence of chemoprevention.
CONCLUSIONS: We provide the first proof of concept, albeit somewhat underpowered, that spectral markers reversion mirrors antineoplastic efficacy providing a potential modality for titration of agent type/dose to optimise chemopreventive strategies in clinical practice.
TRIAL NUMBER: NCT00468910.
The biomedical uses for the spectroscopy of scattered light by micro and nanoscale objects can broadly be classified into two areas. The first, often called light scattering spectroscopy (LSS), deals with light scattered by dielectric particles, such as cellular and sub-cellular organelles, and is employed to measure their size or other physical characteristics. Examples include the use of LSS to measure the size distributions of nuclei or mitochondria. The native contrast that is achieved with LSS can serve as a non-invasive diagnostic and scientific tool. The other area for the use of the spectroscopy of scattered light in biology and medicine involves using conducting metal nanoparticles to obtain either contrast or electric field enhancement through the effect of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Gold and silver metal nanoparticles are non-toxic, they do not photobleach, are relatively inexpensive, are wavelength-tunable, and can be labeled with antibodies. This makes them very promising candidates for spectrally encoded molecular imaging. Metal nanoparticles can also serve as electric field enhancers of Raman signals. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is a powerful method for detecting and identifying molecules down to single molecule concentrations. In this review, we will concentrate on the common physical principles, which allow one to understand these apparently different areas using similar physical and mathematical approaches. We will also describe the major advancements in each of these areas, as well as some of the exciting recent developments.
Calcium carbonate skeletons of scleractinian corals amplify light availability to their algal symbionts by diffuse scattering, optimizing photosynthetic energy acquisition. However, the mechanism of scattering and its role in coral evolution and dissolution of algal symbioses during "bleaching'' events are largely unknown. Here we show that differences in skeletal fractal architecture at nano/micro-lengthscales within 96 coral taxa result in an 8-fold variation in light-scattering and considerably alter the algal light environment. We identified a continuum of properties that fall between two extremes: (1) corals with low skeletal fractality that are efficient at transporting and redistributing light throughout the colony with low scatter but are at higher risk of bleaching and (2) corals with high skeletal fractality that are inefficient at transporting and redistributing light with high scatter and are at lower risk of bleaching. While levels of excess light derived from the coral skeleton is similar in both groups, the low-scatter corals have a higher rate of light-amplification increase when symbiont concentration is reduced during bleaching, thus creating a positive feedback-loop between symbiont concentration and light-amplification that exposes the remaining symbionts to increasingly higher light intensities. By placing our findings in an evolutionary framework, in conjunction with a novel empirical index of coral bleaching susceptibility, we find significant correlations between bleaching susceptibility and light-scattering despite rich homoplasy in both characters; suggesting that the cost of enhancing light-amplification to the algae is revealed in decreased resilience of the partnership to stress.
Low-coherence enhanced backscattering (LEBS) spectroscopy is an angular resolved backscattering technique that is sensitive to sub-diffusion light transport length scales in which information about scattering phase function is preserved. Our group has shown the ability to measure the spatial backscattering impulse response function along with depth-selective optical properties in tissue ex-vivo using LEBS. Here we report the design and implementation of a lens-free fiber optic LEBS probe capable of providing depth-limited measurements of the reduced scattering coefficient in-vivo. Experimental measurements combined with Monte Carlo simulation of scattering phantoms consisting of polystyrene microspheres in water are used to validate the performance of the probe. Additionally, depth-limited capabilities are demonstrated using Monte Carlo modeling and experimental measurements from a two-layered phantom. (C) 2012 Optical Society of America
Polarization-gating has been widely used to probe superficial tissue structures, but the penetration depth properties of this method have not been completely elucidated. This study employs a polarizationsensitive Monte Carlo method to characterize the penetration depth statistics of polarization-gating. The analysis demonstrates that the penetration depth depends on both the illumination-collection geometry [ illumination-collection area (R) and collection angle (theta(c))] and on the optical properties of the sample, which include the scattering coefficient (mu(s)), absorption coefficient (mu(a)), anisotropy factor (g), and the type of the phase function. We develop a mathematical expression relating the average penetration depth to the illumination-collection beam properties and optical properties of the medium. Finally, we quantify the sensitivity of the average penetration depth to changes in optical properties for different geometries of illumination and collection. The penetration depth model derived in this study can be applied to optimizing application-specific fiber-optic probes to target a sampling depth of interest with minimal sensitivity to the optical properties of the sample. (C) 2012 Optical Society of America
Since the early 1980s, the enhanced backscattering (EBS) phenomenon has been well-studied in a large variety of non-biological materials. Yet, until recently, the use of conventional EBS for the characterization of biological tissue has been fairly limited. In this study, we detail the unique ability of EBS to provide spectroscopic, polarimetric, and depth-resolved characterization of biological tissue using a simple backscattering instrument. We first explain the experimental and numerical procedures used to accurately measure and model the full azimuthal EBS peak shape in biological tissue. Next, we explore the peak shape and height dependencies for different polarization channels and spatial coherence of illumination. We then illustrate the extraordinary sensitivity of EBS to the shape of the scattering phase function using suspensions of latex microspheres. Finally, we apply EBS to biological tissue samples in order to measure optical properties and observe the spatial length scales at which backscattering is altered in early colon carcinogenesis.
This paper reports the evolution of scanning spectral imaging techniques using scattered light for minimally invasive detection of early cancerous changes in tissue and cell biology applications. Optical spectroscopic techniques have shown promising results in the diagnosis of disease on a cellular scale. They do not require tissue removal, can be performed in vivo, and allow for real-time diagnoses. Fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy are most effective in revealing molecular properties of tissue. Light scattering spectroscopy (LSS) relates the spectroscopic properties of light elastically scattered by small particles, such as epithelial cell nuclei and organelles, to their size, shape, and refractive index. It is capable of characterizing the structural properties of tissue on cellular and subcellular scales. However, in order to be useful in the detection of early cancerous changes that are otherwise not visible to the naked eye, it must rapidly survey a comparatively large area while simultaneously detecting these cellular changes. Both goals are achieved by combining LSS with spatial scanning imaging. Two examples are described in this paper. The first reviews a clinical system for screening patients with Barrett's esophagus. The second presents a novel advancement in confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy.
Enhanced backscattering (EBS), also known as weak localization of light, is derived using the Huygens-Fresnel principle and backscattering is generally shown to be the sum of an incoherent baseline and a phase conjugated portion of the incident wave that forms EBS. The phase conjugated portion is truncated by an effective aperture described by the probability function P(s) of coherent path-pair separations. P(s) is determined by the scattering properties of the medium and so characterization of EBS can be used for metrology of scattering materials. A three dimensional intensity peak is predicted in free space at a point conjugate to the source and is experimentally observed. (C) 2011 Optical Society of America
Low-coherence enhanced backscattering (LEBS) is a depth selective technique that allows noninvasive characterization of turbid media such as biological tissue. LEBS provides a spectral measurement of the tissue reflectance distribution as a function of distance between incident and reflected ray pairs through the use of partial spatial coherence broadband illumination. We present LEBS as a new depth-selective technique to measure optical properties of tissue in situ. Because LEBS enables measurements of reflectance due to initial scattering events, LEBS is sensitive to the shape of the phase function in addition to the reduced scattering coefficient (mu*(s)). We introduce a simulation of LEBS that implements a two parameter phase function based on the Whittle-Matern refractive index correlation function model. We show that the LEBS enhancement factor (E) primarily depends on mu*(s), the normalized spectral dependence of E (S(n)) depends on one of the two parameters of the phase function that also defines the functional type of the refractive index correlation function (m), and the LEBS peak width depends on both the anisotropy factor (g) and m. Three inverse models for calculating these optical properties are described and the calculations are validated with an experimental measurement from a tissue phantom. (C) 2011 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). [DOI:10.1117/1.3589349]
Low-coherence enhanced backscattering (LEBS) is a depth-selective self-interference phenomenon that originates from light traveling time-reversed paths in a scattering medium. The depth selectivity of LEBS and its sensitivity to optical properties of the scattering medium has made it a promising technique for probing the structure of biological tissue with applications to disease diagnosis and, in particular, precancerous conditions. The ability to accurately predict the penetration depth of the LEBS signal is important in targeting an optimal tissue depth for detecting precancerous cells. This prediction is further complicated by the variation in optical properties of different tissue types. In this paper, the effects of the reduced scattering coefficient (mu(s)'), the phase function and the instrument spatial coherence length (L(sc)) on the LEBS penetration depth are quantified. It is determined that the LEBS penetration depth is primarily dependent on L(sc), mu(s)', and the anisotropy factor (g), but has minimal dependence on higher moments of the phase function. An empirical expression, having a similar form as the double scattering approximation for LEBS, is found to accurately predict the average penetration depth in the multiple scattering regime. The expression is shown to be accurate for a broad range of experimentally relevant optical properties and spatial coherence lengths. (C) 2011 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). [DOI: 10.1117/1.3625402]
From astronomy to cell biology, the manner in which light propagates in turbid media has been of central importance for many decades. However, light propagation near the point-of-entry in turbid media has never been analytically described, until now. Here we report a straightforward and accurate method that overcomes this longstanding, unsolved problem in radiative transport. Our theory properly treats anisotropic photon scattering events and takes the specific form of the phase function into account. As a result, our method correctly predicts the spatially dependent diffuse reflectance of light near the point-of-entry for any arbitrary phase function. We demonstrate that the theory is in excellent agreement with both experimental results and Monte Carlo simulations for several commonly used phase functions.
Enhanced Backscattering Spectroscopy enables minimally invasive measurement of optical properties of biological tissues by characterizing the shape of backscattered light in both angle and spectrum. The peak in scattering intensity in the retroreflection direction depends on the scattering properties of a random medium including mean free path, anisotropy, and even higher order characteristics such as mass fractal dimension. These properties are shown to be significant markers of risk in gastrointestinal cancers. Miniaturization of the technology with development of a fiber optic probe and supporting instrumentation enables in vivo clinical studies of risk stratification. (C) 2010 Optical Society of America
In this Letter, we describe an easy to implement technique to measure the spatial backscattering impulse-response at length scales shorter than a transport mean free path with resolution of better than 10 mu m using the enhanced backscattering phenomenon. This technique enables spectroscopic measurements throughout the visible range and sensitivity to all polarization channels. Through a combination of Monte Carlo simulations and experimental measurements of latex microspheres, we explore the various sensitivities of our technique to both intrinsic sample properties and extrinsic instrumental properties. We conclude by demonstrating the extraordinary sensitivity of our technique to the shape of the scattering phase function, including higher order shape parameters than the anisotropy factor (or first moment). (C) 2011 Optical Society of America
Most cancers are curable if they are diagnosed and treated at an early stage. Recent studies suggest that nanoarchitectural changes occur within cells during early carcinogenesis and that such changes precede microscopically evident tissue alterations. It follows that the ability to comprehensively interrogate cell nanoarchitecture (e.g., macromolecular complexes, DNA, RNA, proteins and lipid membranes) could be critical to the diagnosis of early carcinogenesis. We present a study of the nanoscale mass-density fluctuations of biological tissues by quantifying their degree of disorder at the nanoscale. Transmission electron microscopy images of human tissues are used to construct corresponding effective disordered optical lattices. The properties of nanoscale disorder are then studied by statistical analysis of the inverse participation ratio (IPR) of the spatially localized eigenfunctions of these optical lattices at the nanoscale. Our results show an increase in the disorder of human colonic epithelial cells in subjects harboring early stages of colon neoplasia. Furthermore, our findings strongly suggest that increased nanoscale disorder correlates with the degree of tumorigenicity. Therefore, the IPR technique provides a practicable tool for the detection of nanoarchitectural alterations in the earliest stages of carcinogenesis. Potential applications of the technique for early cancer screening and detection are also discussed.
Low-coherence enhanced backscattering (LEBS) is a technique that has recently shown promise for tissue characterization and the detection of early precancer. Although several Monte Carlo models of LEBS have been described, these models have not been accurate enough to predict all of the experimentally observed LEBS features. We present an appropriate Monte Carlo model to simulate LEBS peak properties from polystyrene microsphere suspensions in water. Results show that the choice of the phase function greatly impacts the accuracy of the simulation when the transport mean free path (ls*) is much greater than the spatial coherence length (L(SC)). When ls* < L(SC), a diffusion-approximation-based model of LEBS is sufficiently accurate. We also use the Monte Carlo model to validate that LEBS can be used to measure the radial scattering probability distribution (radial point spread function), p(r), at small length scales and demonstrate LEBS measurements of p(r) from biological tissue. In particular, we show that precancerous and benign mucosal tissues have different small length scale light transport properties.
Low-coherence enhanced backscattering (LEBS) spectroscopy is a light scattering technique which uses partial spatial coherence broadband illumination to interrogate the optical properties at sub-diffusion length scales. In this work, we present a post-processing technique which isolates the hemoglobin concentration at different depths within a sample using a single spectroscopic LEBS measurement with a fixed spatial coherence of illumination. We verify the method with scattering (spectralon reflectance standard and polystyrene microspheres) and absorbing (hemoglobin) phantoms. We then demonstrate the relevance of this method for quantifying hemoglobin content as a function of depth within biological tissue using the azoxymethane treated animal model of colorectal cancer. (C)2010 Optical Society of America
Flexible sigmoidoscopy is a robust, clinically validated, and widely available colorectal cancer screening technique that is currently sanctioned by major guideline organizations. Given that endoscopic visualization is generally limited to the distal third of the colon and women tend to have a proclivity for proximal lesions, the flexible sigmoidoscopy performance is markedly inferior in women than in men. Our group has shown that by using a novel light-scattering approach, we were able to detect an early increase in blood supply (EIBS) in the distal colonic mucosa, which served as a marker of field carcinogenesis and, hence, proximal neoplasia. Therefore, we sought to ascertain whether rectal EIBS would improve flexible sigmoidoscopy, especially in women. A polarization-gated spectroscopy fiber-optic probe was used to assess EIBS in the endoscopically normal rectum (n = 366). When compared with gender-matched neoplasia-free controls, females with advanced proximal neoplasia (n = 10) had a robust (60%; P = 0.002) increase in rectal mucosal oxyhemoglobin content whereas the effect size in males was less marked (33%; P = 0.052). In women, addition of rectal oxyhemoglobin tripled the sensitivity for advanced neoplasia over flexible sigmoidoscopy alone. Indeed, the performance characteristics seemed to be excellent (sensitivity, 100%; specificity, 76.8%; positive predictive value, 32.6%; and negative predictive value, 100%). A variety of nonneoplastic factors were assessed and did not confound the relationship between rectal EIBS and advanced neoplasia. Therefore, using rectal EIBS in combination with flexible sigmoidoscopy mitigated the gender gap and may allow flexible sigmoidoscopy to be considered as a viable colorectal cancer screening test in women. Cancer Prev Res; 3(7); 844-51. (C) 2010 AACR.
We provide a methodology for accurately predicting elastic backscattering radial distributions from random media with two simple empirical models. We apply these models to predict the backscattering based on two classes of scattering phase functions: the Henyey-Greenstein phase function and a generalized two parameter phase function that is derived from the Whittle-Matern correlation function. We demonstrate that the model has excellent agreement over all length scales and has less than 1% error for backscattering at subdiffusion length scales for tissue-relevant optical properties. The presented model is the first available approach for accurately predicting backscattering at length scales significantly smaller than the transport mean free path. (C) 2010 Optical Society of America