This paper reports the application of endoscopic light scattering spectroscopy (LSS) with light gating to detect malignancies in the biliary and pancreatic ducts, and also reviews the application of endoscopic LSS for differentiating cystic neoplasms in the pancreas and detecting invisible dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus. Information about tissue structure within the superficial epithelium where malignancy starts is present within the spectra of reflected light. Fortunately this component of the reflected light is not yet randomized. However multiple scattering randomizes the signal from the underlying connective tissue which obscures the desired signal. In order to extract diagnostic information from the reflected signal the multiple scattering component related to connective tissue scattering and absorption must be removed. This is accomplished using described here spatial or polarization gating implemented with endoscopically compatible fiber optic probes.
Confocal holographic scanning microscopy combines quantitative digital holography with confocal laser scanning microscopy. Here we present the procedure for the reconstruction of the local sample refractive index in the confocal holographic scanning microscope.
The enormous increase of Raman signal in the vicinity of metal nanoparticles allows surface‐enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) to be employed for label‐free detection of substances at extremely low concentrations. However, the ultimate potential of label‐free SERS to identify pharmaceutical compounds at low concentrations, especially in relation to biofluid sensing, is far from being fully realized. Opioids are a particular challenge for rapid clinical identification because their molecular structural similarities prevent their differentiation with immunolabeling approaches. In this paper, a new method called quantitative label‐free SERS (QLF‐SERS) which involves the formation of halide‐conjugated gold nanoclusters trapping the analyte of interest near the SERS hot spots is reported, and it is demonstrated that it yields a 105 fold improvement in the detection limit over previously reported results for the entire class of clinically relevant opioids and their metabolites. Measurements of opioid concentrations in multicomponent mixtures are also demonstrated. QLF‐SERS has comparable detection limits as currently existing laboratory urine drug testing techniques but is significantly faster and inexpensive and, therefore, can be easily adapted as part of a rapid clinical laboratory routine.
A reconstruction algorithm for holographic scanning microscopy should take into account scanning-associated phase shifts. Here we present the stable, not prone to noise, algorithm which does not require additional recording of the object wave intensity.
Esophageal adenocarcinoma is the most rapidly growing cancer in America. Although the prognosis after diagnosis is unfavorable, the chance of a successful outcome increases tremendously if detected early while the lesion is still dysplastic. Unfortunately, the present standard-of-care, endoscopic surveillance, has major limitations, since dysplasia is invisible, often focal, and systematic biopsies typically sample less than one percent of the esophageal lining and therefore easily miss malignancies. To solve this problem we developed a multispectral light scattering endoscopic imaging system. It surveys the entire esophageal lining and accurately detects subcellular dysplastic changes. The system combines light scattering spectroscopy, which detects and identifies invisible dysplastic sites by analyzing light scattered from epithelial cells, with rapid scanning of the entire esophageal lining using a collimated broadband light beam delivered by an endoscopically compatible fiber optic probe. Here we report the results of the first comprehensive multispectral imaging study, conducted as part of routine endoscopic procedures performed on patients with suspected dysplasia. In a double-blind study that characterized the system’s ability to serve as a screening tool, 55 out of 57 patients were diagnosed correctly. In addition, a smaller double-blind comparison of the multispectral data in 24 patients with subsequent pathology at locations where 411 biopsies were collected yielded an accuracy of 90% in detecting individual locations of dysplasia, demonstrating the capability of this method to serve as a guide for biopsy.