Whereas the mental health and personal safety of pedestrians have been the subject of both debates in the public sphere and discourses in social sciences, the interpersonal dynamic of citizens on foot remains so far unexplored. This paper takes a game-theoretical approach to the psychology, behaviour, and welfare of pedestrians, who experience different levels of mutualised anxiety and confidence in spontaneous encounters with strangers on the road. Through a combined method of survey, modelling, and theory, it proposes an equilibrium-analysis of inter-pedestrian signalling, as well as a set of public policy recommendations aimed to reduce unnecessary frictions, improve information transparency, and therefore promote public safety.
Background: The distribution of healthcare resources across local and global communities has triggered alarms throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. Injustice and inefficiency in the transfer of lifesaving medical supplies are magnified by the urgency of the public health crisis, ramified through pre-existing socioeconomic tensions, and further aggravated by frictions that plague international cooperation and global governance. Aim: This article explores the ethical and economic dimensions of medical supplies, from the microcosm of distributive algorithms to the macroscope of medical trade. Methods: It first analyses the performance, strategy, and social responsibility of ventilator-suppliers through a series of case studies. Then, the authors seek to redress the need-insensitivity of existing distributive models with a new price-based and need-conscious algorithm. Next, the paper empirically traces the exchange of medical supplies across borders, examines the effect of trade disputes on medical reliance and pandemic preparedness, and makes a game-theoretical case for sharing critical resources with foreign communities. Conclusion: The authors argue that the equitable allocation of medical supplies must consider the contexts and conditions of need; that political barriers to medical transfers undermine a government’s capacity to contain the contagion by reducing channels of access to medical goods; and that self-interested public policies often turn out to be counterproductive geopolitical strategies. In the post-pandemic world, the prospect of medical justice demands a balanced ethical and economic approach that cuts across the borders of nation-states and the bounds of the private sector and the public sphere.
This chapter first reviews the historical background of the emergence of social finance in Western societies, and presents different types of investment methods and financial instruments. Next, it reviews the different policy measures, industry institutions, best practices and typical tools in the UK and the US. Additionally, this chapter discusses the institutional infrastructure of social finance, including governmental infrastructure, industrial infrastructure, intellectual infrastructure, as well as challenges facing social finance. Finally, it provides three recommendations to promote the development of social finance in China.