Higher Global Diet Quality Score Is Inversely Associated with Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in US Women


Teresa T Fung, Yanping Li, Shilpa N Bhupathiraju, Sabri Bromage, Carolina Batis, Michelle D Holmes, Meir Stampfer, Frank B Hu, Megan Deitchler, and Walter C Willett. 2021. “Higher Global Diet Quality Score Is Inversely Associated with Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in US Women.” J Nutr, 151, Supplement_2, Pp. 168S-175S. Publisher's Version
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BACKGROUND: We have developed a diet quality metric intended for global use. To assess its utility in high-income settings, an evaluation of its ability to predict chronic disease is needed. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to prospectively examine the ability of the Global Diet Quality Score (GDQS) to predict the risk of type 2 diabetes in the United States, examine potential differences of association by age, and compare the GDQS with other diet quality scores. METHODS: Health, lifestyle, and diet information was collected from women (n = 88,520) in the Nurses' Health Study II aged 27-44 y at baseline through repeated questionnaires between 1991 and 2017. The overall GDQS consists of 25 food groups. Points are awarded for higher intake of healthy groups and lower intake of unhealthy groups (maximum of 49 points). Multivariable HRs were computed for confirmed type 2 diabetes using proportional hazards models. We also compared the GDQS with the Minimum Diet Diversity score for Women (MDD-W) and the Alternate Healthy Eating Index-2010 (AHEI-2010). RESULTS: We ascertained 6305 incident cases of type 2 diabetes during follow-up. We observed a lower risk of diabetes with higher GDQS; the multivariable HR comparing extreme quintiles of the GDQS was 0.83 (95% CI: 0.76, 0.91; P-trend < 0.001). The magnitude of association was similar between women aged <50 y and those aged ≥50 y. An inverse association was observed with lower intake of unhealthy components (HR comparing extreme quintiles of the unhealthy submetric: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.69, 0.84; P-trend < 0.001) but was not with the healthy submetric. The inverse association for each 1-SD increase in the GDQS (HR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.91, 0.96) was stronger (P < 0.001) than for the MDD-W (HR: 1.00; 95% CI: 0.94, 1.04) but was slightly weaker (P = 0.03) than for the AHEI-2010 (HR: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.88, 0.94). CONCLUSIONS: A higher GDQS was inversely associated with type 2 diabetes risk in US women of reproductive age or older, mainly from lower intake of unhealthy foods. The GDQS performed nearly as well as the AHEI-2010.
Last updated on 11/04/2021